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法规翻译 2006第2期  

2009-05-30 11:00:01|  分类: 转载 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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来源:主站 时间:2007-09-28 10:56 阅读次数:

    上海市行政法制研究所译审外事室  (总第27期)   2006 6 20日出版

    [译文规范]

    关于对部分园林基本术语统一的意见

    在 有关城市建设、环境保护等法规、规章和其他规范性文件的翻译中,经常会遇到一些与园林有关的基本术语的翻译,这些基本术语专业性强、意义特定,其在翻译中 应具有一一对应性。但在当前的翻译实践中,同一个基本术语的翻译往往不尽统一,为尽量避免和减少这种现象的发生,现依据《园林基本术语标准》(中华人民共 和国建设部公告第73号批准发布),就法规、规章和规范性文件中常见的与园林有关的基本术语的翻译统一如下,请参照执行:

    绿化           greeningplanting

    城市绿化       urban greeningurban planting

    城市绿地       urban green space

    街旁绿地       roadside green space

    居住绿地       green space attached to housing estateresidential green space

    道路绿地       green space attached to urban road and square

    立体绿化       vertical planting

    风景林地       scenic forest land

    绿化覆盖面积   green coverage

    绿化覆盖率     percentage of greenery coverage

    绿地率         greening rateratio of green space

    绿带           green belt

    楔形绿地       green wedge

    古树名木       historical tree and famous wood species

    行道树         avenue treestreet tree

    绿化工程       plant engineering

    风景名胜区     landscape and famous scenery

    风景名胜       famous sceneryfamous scenic site

   

 [专家论坛]

    本栏目专门刊登专家的翻译心得、体会及研究成果,旨在为法规、规章和其他规范性文件的翻译的研究提供一个相互交流、探讨的园地。

    本栏目热忱欢迎各位翻译和译审专家的来稿,稿酬从优。

    中华人民共和国《民法通则》AAA英译本比较评析

    陈忠诚

    (接总第26期)

    原文:           第五章 民事权利

    第一节 财产所有权和与财产所有权有关的财产权

    译文:CHAPTER V    Civil Rights (LAB; CCH; CLR)

    Section 1 Property Ownership and Related Property Rights (LAB; CCH)

    Section 1 Property Ownership Rights and Property Rights Related to Property Ownership Rights (CLR)

    述评:(1 “civil rights”是西方特别是美国的所谓“民权”,怎么能逐字对号入座,用来译“民事权利”呢?!――就不怕(往少里说)被英语民族的英语读者误解吗?凡事要动动脑子;译事亦然,愿共勉之。

    2)第一节原文的汉译,LABCCH是一种译法,CLR又是一种译法,以后者为精确,但有失精练,拟作如下译,供比较指正:

    a) Property Ownership and Its Related Property Rights

    b) Property Ownership and Property Rights Related Thereto

    原文: 第七十一条 财产所有权是指所有人依法对自己的财产享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

    译文: Article 71. “Property ownership” means the owner’s rights to lawfully possess, utilize, profit from and dispose of his property.LAB

    Article 71. Property ownership refers to the rights of an owner, according to the law, to possess, use, reap benefit from and dispose of his own property. (CCH)

    Article 71. Property ownership rights refer to the rights of all people to possess, use, benefit from and dispose of one’s own property in accordance with the law. (CLR)

    述评:(1CLR把原文“所有人”的“所有”误解为“一切”了,从而“所有人”被误解为“所有的人”并误译为 “all people”了。在译者的上述误解误译中,立法也有过焉――因为立法者如能防止歧义,原是会把“所有人”写成“所有权人”的。

    2)笔者对三种译文作了比较后,认定以LAB为其中的最佳译(utilization宜改为use

    原文: 第七十二条 财产所有权的取得,不得违反法律规定。

    按照合同或者其他合法方式取得财产的,财产所有权从财产交付时起转移,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

    译文: Article 72. Property ownership shall not be obtained in violation of the law. Unless the law stipulates otherwise or the parties concerned have agreed on other arrangements, the ownership of property obtained by contract or by other lawful means shall be transferred simultaneously with the property itself. (LAB)

    Article 72. The ownership of property may not be acquired in violation of the provisions of the law. Where property is acquired in accordance with a contract or other legal means, ownership of the property shall pass from the time the property is handed over, unless otherwise stipulated by law or by agreement between the interested parties. (CCH)

    Article 72. The acquisition of ownership rights to property must not violate provisions of law.

    With respect to property obtained by contract or other lawful means, ownership rights are transferred at the moment the property is delivered except where the law provides otherwise or where the parties have agreed otherwise. (CLR)

    述评:(1)请问“不得违反法律规定”与“不得违反法律”有什么不同吗?只差了“规定”两字,而含义全同。不妨说,“规定”两字,是立法废话。所以“CCH”与“CLR”译作“provisions of (the) law”乃以废译废,不足为训;但LAB能去废话而不译,仅作“in violation of the law”而不作“in violation of (the) provisions of the law” 足见其高明之处。

    2)“财产所有权从财产交付时起转移”是法律制度即“rule of law”而不是责成某人以某项义务的行为规范(rule of conduct)当然无“shall”立锥之地,而LABCCH又让“shall”病毒感染上了,令人扼腕。但也有令人高兴的――在这里CLR(没有同LABCCH一般见识)译作不用“shall”的“are transferred”,值得表扬。

    3CCHLAB把“法律另有规定”的“规定”译作“stipulate(d)”是典型的用词不当;而CLR译作“provides”,这就得当了。

    4)“财产所有权”CLR的译文作“ownership right to property”,虽憨态可掬,却大可不必――自以CCH “ownership of property”为是,而CLR作“property ownership”更佳,简洁故也。

    5)三译文颇有精练之余地。

    6)法律条文或由一款组成,为单数条文;或由两款以上组成,为多款条目。本条为多款条目,却被CCH译文合两(款)为一(款),使多款条文变成单款条文。使有关法律或法律文书指称本条(如”《民法通则》第七十二条第二款”)者无法在 CCH译文中找到――第二款已经给合并掉了,没有了。

    7)本条三译文颇有改进之余地,兹以下列译文代替对三译文的综合评论,请指正:

    Article 72.

    No property ownership may be obtained against law.

    In acquisition of property by contractual or other means, property ownership transfers upon delivery of the property.

    原文: 第七十三条 国家财产属于全民所有。

    国家财产神圣不可侵犯,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留、破坏。

    译文:Article 73. State property shall be owned by the whole people.

    State property is sacred and inviolable, and no organization or individual shall be allowed to seize, encroach upon, privately divide, retain or destroy it.LAB

    Article 73. State property is owned by the whole people.

    State property is sacred and inviolable. It is prohibited for any organization or individual to occupy, fraudulently seize, privately divide, withhold or damage State property. (CCH)

    Article 73. State property is owned by the whole people. State property is sacred and inviolable; and it is forbidden for any organization or individual to encroach upon, to plunder, to take for oneself, to retain or to destroy it. (CLR)

    述评:(1)“shall”病毒真是猖獗,LAB的抵抗力真差,第一款译文(shall be owned)又患上“shall”滥用症了。CCHCLR两译能洁身自好,不为“shall”病毒所染,均只作“is (而不是“shall be”) owned”,这有多好啊。

    2)这回轮到CLR把本条从多款条目译成单款了。这一情况以及已经评述到的其他类似情况集中证明了一点:中国法洲际英译水平很不稳定。我国的中国法英译工作者必须作出更大的贡献。

    3)三译在译文之结构合理、用词精确和行文精练等方面,颇有提高、改进之余地。为此,试译如下,请比较指正:

    Article 73

    State property is owned by the whole people.

    State property being sacred and inviolable, no organization or individual may misappropriate, snatch up en masse, illicitly allocate, intercept, or undermine it.

    原文: 第七十四条 劳动群众集体组织的财产属于劳动群众集体所有,包括:

    (一)法律规定为集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等;

    (二)集体经济组织的财产;

    (三)集体所有的建筑物、水库、农田水利设施和教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育等设施;

    (四)集体所有的其他财产。

    集 体所有的土地依照法律属于村农民集体所有,由村农业生产合作社等农业集体经济组织或者村民委员会经营、管理。已经属于乡(镇)农民集体经济组织所有的,可 以属于乡(镇)农民集体所有。集体所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、破坏或者非法查封、扣押、冻结、没收。

    译文:Article 74. Property of collective organizations of the working masses shall be owned collectively by the working masses. This shall include:

    (1) Land, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches and other areas that are stipulated by law to be under collective ownership;

    (2) Property of collective economic organizations;

    (3) Collectively owned buildings, reservoirs, farm irrigation facilities and educational, scientific, cultural, health, sports and other facilities; and

    (4) Other property that is collectively owned.

    Collectively owned land shall be owned collectively by the village peasants in accordance with the law and shall be worked and managed by village agricultural production cooperatives, other collective agricultural economic organizations or villager’ committees. Land already under the ownership of the township (town) peasants’ collective economic organizations may be collectively owned by the peasants of the township (town). Collectively owned property shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may seize, encroach upon, privately divide, destroy or illegally seal up, distrain, freeze or confiscate it. (LAB)

    Article 74. The property of a collective organization of the working people is owned by the collective, including:

    (i) land, forests, mountains, grasslands, wastelands, siltbanks, etc., stipulated by law as being owned by the collective;

    (ii) property of collective economic organization;

    (iii) buildings, reservoirs, irrigation and water conservation installations and educational, scientific, cultural, health and sports facilities, etc., which are owned by the collective;

    (iv) other property owned by the collective.

    Land owned by a collective shall, in accordance with the law, be owned collectively by the village peasants and managed and administered by an agricultural collective economic organization such as the village agricultural production co-operative or by the village citizens’ committee. Land which is already owned by a township peasants’ collective economic organization may be collectively owned by the township peasants.

    Property owned by a collective is protected by law. It is prohibited for any organization or individual to occupy, fraudulently seize, privately divide, damage or illegally seal up, detain, freeze or confiscate such property. (CCH)

    Article 74. The property of collective organizations of the laboring masses is collective property owned by collective organizations of the laboring masses, which includes:

    (1) land and forests, mountain ridges, grasslands, uncultivated land, beaches, etc.;

    (2) property of collective economic organizations;

    (3) buildings, reservoirs, farmland, irrigation facilities, as well as educational, scientific, cultural, health, athletic and other facilities owned by collectives;

    (4)other property owned by collectives.

    Collectively owned land which, according to law, is owned by village peasant collectives shall be operated and managed by agricultural collective economic organizations such as village agricultural production co-operatives or by village peasant committees. The land that is already owned by county (town) peasant collective.

    Collectively owned property is protected by law; and it is forbidden for any organization or individual to encroach upon, to plunder, to take for oneself, to destroy, or illegally to seal up, to seize, to block or to confiscate it. (CLR)

    述评:(1)“laboring masses”是“劳苦大众”,CLR以之译“劳动群众”,就失真了即扭曲我国社会现状了――“劳动”是“working”!所以,CCHLAB两译都是对的。

    2)“集体所有的财产受法律保护”中的“受法律保护”,CCHCLR均作“is protected by law”,无疑是正确的;但LAB却作“shall be protected by law”无疑又错了!――难道是命令“law”,要“law”承担使集体财产被保护的义务吗?

    3)看来,LAB简直嗜“shall”病毒成癖了――连第一款的“包括”也被译成“shall include”了!当然,又是CCH(“including”)和CLR(“includes”)对。

    4)原文一款(一)之首“法律规定为”中的动词“规定”,LABCCH两译本均作“stipulate”,如前所述评二译错了;应改正为“provide”才是。但CLR并未犯这一错误,这是由于CLR犯这一错误的前提已被它所犯的另一个错误所彻底剥夺了――CLR根本把”法律规定为”漏译了。

    原文: 第七十五条 公民的个人财产,包括公民的合法收入、房屋、储蓄、生活用品、文物、图书资料、林木、牲畜和法律允许公民所有的生产资料以及其他合法财产。公民的合法财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、破坏或者非法查封、扣押、冻结、没收。

    译文: Article 75. A citizen’s personal property shall include his lawfully earned income, housing, savings, articles for daily use, objects d’art, books, reference materials, trees, livestock, as well as means of production the law permits a citizen to possess and other lawful property. A citizen’s lawful property shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may appropriate, encroach upon, destroy or illegally seal up, distrain, freeze or confiscate it. (LAB)

    Article 75. The private property of a citizen includes lawful income, house, saving, daily effects, cultural relics, books and library materials, forest trees, livestock and means of production which a citizen is permitted by law to own, and other lawful property.

    The lawful property of a citizen is protected by law. It is prohibited for any organization or individual to occupy, fraudulently seize, privately, divide, damage or illegally seal up, detain, freeze or confiscate such property. (CCH)

    Article 75. Citizens’ personal property includes the citizens’ lawful income, dwellings, savings, articles for daily use, cultural objects, reading and reference materials, trees, livestock, means of production that citizens are lawfully permitted to own and other lawful property.

    Citizens’ lawful property is protected by law; and it is forbidden for any organization or individual to encroach upon, to plunder, to destroy or illegally to seal up, to seize, to block or to confiscate it. (CLR)

    述评:(1)不得不重复又重复地指出:LAB又滥用了“shall”(“shall include”);而CCHCLR又没有滥用“shall”而正确地只用“includes”

    2LAB犯了另一个严重错误――把“公民所有”误译为“a citizen to possess”即“公民占有”了。CCHCLR又译对了:“a citizen…to own”。须知“to possess”即“占有”与“to own”即“所有”截然有别,是最最起码的民法常识,是每一个新从事法律英译者上岗前非具备不可的最低要求。

    3)但第二款后段译文设计LABCCHCLR成功,故有简洁之效。

    原文: 第七十六条 公民依法享有财产继承权。

    译文: Article 76. Citizens shall have the right of inheritance under the law. (LAB)

    Article 76. Citizens enjoy the right of property inheritance in accordance with the law. (CCH)

    Article 76. Citizens enjoy the right of succession to property in accordance with law. (CLR)

    述评: LAB的致命伤是又一次使用了“shall”――且情况较前更为严重。如果把LAB的英译译回汉语(back translation),其谬误之非同一般就非常明显了:“公民依法必须[即有义务]享有财产继承权。”!!!LAB的这一错误正是下列引文所批评的典型――把权利译成了义务:

    The draftsman should avoid the common error of using “shall” to confer a right when the recipient is the subject of an active sentence. A right should not be stated as a duty to enjoy the right.

    Don’t say                             Say

    He shall receive compensation of     He is entitled to compensation of

    $12,000 a year.                    $12,000 a year.

    --From The Fundamentals of Legal Drafting

    原文:第七十七条 社会团体包括宗教团体的合法财产受法律保护。

    译文:Article 77. The lawful property of social organizations, including religious organizations, shall be protected by law. (LAB)

    Article 77. The lawful property of associations, including that of religious associations, is protected by law. (CCH)

    Article 77. The lawful property of social organizations, including religious organizations, receives the protection of law. (CLR)

    述评:(1CLR在明明可以直截了当地作“is protected”(如CCH所译)的上下文中,偏要执意绕弯子,译作“receives the protection of”行文累赘不足为训。

    2LAB的“shall (be protected by law)”滥用症看来确已病入膏肓,但我们决不气馁,还要治愈它。

    原文:第七十八条 财产可以由两个以上的公民、法人共有。

    共有分为按份共有和共同共有。按份共有人按照各自的份额,对共有财产分享权利,分担义务。共同共有人对共有财产享有权利,承担义务。

    按份共有财产的每个共有人有权要求将自己的份额分出或者转让。但在出售时,其他共有人在同等条件下,有优先购买的权利。

    译文: Article 78.  Property may be owned jointly by two or more citizens or legal persons.

    There shall be two kinds of joint ownership, namely co-ownership by shares and common ownership. Each of the co-owners by shares shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations respecting the joint property in proportion to his share.

    Each of the common owners shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations respecting the joint property. Each co-owner by shares shall have the right to withdraw his own share of the joint property or transfer its ownership. However, when he offers to sell his share, the other co-owners shall have a right of pre-emption if all other conditions are equal.LAB

    Article 78. Property may be owned jointly by two or more citizens.

    Co-ownership is divided into co-ownership according to share and ownership-in-common. Co-owners by share enjoy rights and undertake obligations with regard to property in accordance with the proportion of their respective shares. Owners-in-common enjoy rights and undertake obligations with regard to the property owned in common.

    Every co-owner of property co-owned by share has he right to demand the separation or assignment of his portion. When selling a share, however, the other co-owners shall have a pre-emptive right of purchase on equal terms. (CCH)

    Article 78. Property may be jointly owned by two or more citizens or juristic persons. Joint Ownership is divided into co-ownership by shares and undivided co-ownership. A co-owner by shares, according to the number of shares owned, shares [to that extent] in the enjoyment of rights in the common property and in the undertaking of obligations. An undivided co-owner has the right to enjoy, and undertakes obligations for, the whole [extent of] property that is jointly owned.

    Every co-owner of property by shares has the right to request partition or transfer of his shares in the property. However, when a co-owner of property by shares sells his shares, the other co-owners have a prior right to buy his interest on the same terms. (CLR)

    述评:(1)本条第一款末的“共有”,三种译本基本同一――“jointly owned”或“owned jointly”.

    2)第二款首的“共有”(名词)自应相应地同第一款中的“共有”(动词)保持同一;但是,虽然LABCLR做到了这一点,译作“joint ownership”CCH却译作“co-ownership”,同上文“owned jointly”不一致了。CCH这种译法前后矛盾,是不足取的。

    3)既然第二款之首的“共有”应该同第一款末保持同一,译作“joint ownership”;那么下文“按分共有”和“共同共有”中的“共有”也得译成“joint ownership”,可是“LAB”和“CLR”又变卦了――变成“co-ownership…”和“co-ownership…”了。这又违反同一律了。应分别更正为“joint ownership by shares”和“joint ownership in common”

    4)本条共有三款,而CLR的译文只有两款――二、三两款被合而为一了。这里必须再次强调:在法律条文翻译中原文有几款几项,译文也必须有几款几项,不容作任何增损!

    5)原文中所“购买”的,当然就是所“出售”的即“份额”(shares)。但CLR的译文中,竟然出现了一个怪现象:“sell”的是“his shares” 但人家“to buy”的却不是“his shares”而变为“his interest”――请问:买的与卖的不是同一事物――能成交吗?或者说,由于译文偷换了概念使法律原文显得不通了。这就是说,法律译文违反了译名同一律时也可以造成歪曲法律的恶果。是吗?

    原文: 第七十九条 所有人不明的埋藏物、隐藏物,归国家所有。接收单位应当对上缴的单位或者个人,给予表扬或者物质奖励。

    拾得遗失物、漂流物或者失散的饲养动物,应当归还失主,因此而支出的费用由失主偿还。

    译文:Article 79. If the owner of a buried or concealed object is unknown, the object shall belong to the state. The unit that receives the object shall commend or give a material reward to the unit or individual that turns in the object.

    Lost-and-found objects, flotsam and stray animals shall be returned to their rightful owners, and any costs thus incurred shall be reimbursed by the owners. (LAB)

    Article 79. Buried or hidden objects, the ownership of which is unclear, shall be handed over to the State. Units accepting such items shall commend or offer a material reward to the unit or individual which hands in the item.

    Lost articles, flotsam or lost domestic animals which are found shall be returned to the owner who shall compensate the finder for any costs incurred in doing so. (CCH)

    Article 79. Buried property and hidden property whose ownership is unclear reverts to the ownership of the State. The unit receiving such property should give to the unit or individual which delivers it commendation or material reward.

    Recovered lost property, goods which have floated away or stray domestic animals should be returned to their original owner, who should compensate for any expenses paid. (CLR)

    述评:(1)本条第一款前段“归国家所有”仅仅是陈述法律制度;“归”,与其作“归还”(这是误解)不如作“归属”(这才是正解)。在文体上不是在发命令――责成某主体以归还之义务,更何况即使当它在发布命令,那么命令“物”(埋藏物或隐藏)“归国家所有”更属怪诞荒谬。因此,LABCCH的译文均有违原文原意,而LAB之译作“shall belong”更是大错特错。CLR不作这等处理是完全正确的,但就用词(diction)来说,“reverts”不如“belong”精确。

    2)本条第一款后段“应当”,LABCCH均作“shall”是完全正确的,而CLR作“should”似是而非,上了原文的当,是完全错误的。

    3)第一款末的“表扬或者物质奖励”三种译文均作“commend(ation)…or…material reward”,过分拘泥于原文的文字、且又不明译文语言“reward”本身就指“物质”:

    reward…n. 1. Something, as money, given or offered esp. for a special service, such as the return of a lost article or the capture of a criminal.

    --American Heritage Dictionary

    “reward”本身就内含着“物质”;译文中多用了一个“物质”即“material”,从而也多犯了一个错误:用词模棱两可乃法律文字之大忌――“material reward”可以被理解为扎实的重大奖励即“重奖”。也许有关译者认为只用“reward”会被误解为“精神奖励”而不放心?大可不必:“commend(ation)”就是“精神奖励”,是绝对排斥物质奖励的――有“commend(ation)”在,还怕什么?!

    4)第二款“失主”共有三译:“the owners”LAB)、“the owner who”CCH)、“their original owner”CLR)。其中第三种译文显然是动了脑筋、译得很辛苦,却有语病:在英语来说,“their[失物的] original[原来的]owner[主人]”意味着“物”一旦遗“失”,物主就丧失其对失物的所有权而沦为原主了。这岂非把“占有”同“所有”混为一说了?!其实“their(失物的) owner()”不已经是“失主”了吗?!须知“失主”仍不失为所有权人,而“原主”则已让位于现主而无所有权了。

    5CCH的第二款“the owner who”在“owner”与“who”之间不用逗号,造成了文理不通的后果,只要在此两词间用是逗号,文理就通了。

    6)综上所述,改译如下:

    Buried or hidden things of unknown ownership belong to the state through its receiving agencies, which shall commend or reward those who surrender these things.

    Once found, lost articles, flotsam, or lost domestic animals shall be returned to their owners, who shall compensate for any expenses involved.

    原文: 第八十条 国家所有的土地,可以依法由全民所有制单位使用,也可以依法确定由集体所有制单位使用,国家保护它的使用、收益的权利;使用单位有管理、保护、合理利用的义务。

    公民、集体依法对集体所有的或者国家所有由集体使用的土地的承包经营权,受法律保护。承包双方的权利和义务,依照法律由承包合同规定。

    土地不得买卖、出租、抵押或者以其他形式非法转让。

    译文: Article 80. State-owned land may be used according to law by units under ownership by the whole people; it may also be lawfully assigned for use by units under collective ownership. The state shall protect the usufruct of the land, and the usufructuary shall be obligated to manage, protect and properly use the land.

    The right of citizens and collectives to contract for management of land under collective ownership or of state-owned land under collective use shall be protected by law. The rights and obligations of the two contracting parties shall be stipulated in the contract signed in accordance with the law.

    Land may not be sold, leased, mortgaged or illegally transferred by any other means. (LAB)

    Article 80. Land owned by the State may, in accordance with the law, be used by a unit under ownership of the whole people or be designated for use by a collectively-owned unit. The State protects the right to utilize and reap benefit from the land. The unit utilizing the land is obligated to administer, protect and make reasonable use of the land.

    The legal right of citizens and collectives to manage under contract land which is owned by a collective or owned by the State and utilized by a collective is protected by law. The rights and obligations of both parties to the contract shall be stipulated in the contract in accordance with the law.

    Land may not be traded, leased, mortgaged or otherwise illegally transferred. (CCH)

    Article 80. Land that is owned by the State may be used by units under ownership by the whole people in accordance with the law, and by units under collective ownership as determined in accordance with the law, and the State protects the rights to use and to benefit from it; the units using it have the obligations of management, protection and reasonable use.

    The contractual operation rights to land under collective use which is owned by collectives or by the State, by citizens or collectives, in accordance with the law, receive the protection of law. The rights and obligations of the contracting parties shall be provided in the contract in accordance with the law.

    Land is not to be bought and sold, leased, mortgaged or transferred in other unlawful forms. (CLR)

    述评:译文应如何力求精练呢?通过下列试译予以述评:

    State-owned land may be used legally by units of all-people ownership and also by legally designated collectively owned units, the right to its use and its proceeds being protected by law; the user-units are duty-bound for its supervision, protection and reasonable use.

    A citizen’s or a collective’s contractual right of operations over collective-owned or state-owned but collective-used land is protected by law with the rights and duties of the contracting parties legally specified in the contract.

    No land may be sold, leased, mortgaged, or otherwise transferred against law.

    (未完,待续)

   

 [译苑撷英]

    编者按:本栏目本期所选译文皆摘自我室专家的翻译审定稿,仅供大家参考和探讨,并不代表本室的规范性意见。

    1. 实施第三轮环保三年行动计划,是上海贯彻党的十六届五中全会和市委八届八次全会精神,落实国民经济和社会发展“十一五”规划的重要举措。这三年是上海市迎接2010年 世博会、加快“四个中心”建设的重要时期,是上海朝着建设生态型城市总体目标承前启后、奋力推进的重要阶段,但也是上海经济社会发展与资源环境承载力矛盾 凸现的关键时期。面临新形势、新任务和新要求,要在经济高速发展的同时做好本市环境保护工作,必须坚定不移实施产业结构调整,坚定不移实施经济增长方式转 变,大力推进污染治理和生态建设,切实减少污染排放总量和资源消耗,进一步改善环境质量,为实现生态型城市的建设目标奠定坚实的基础。

    To implement the third round of the three-year action program for environmental protection is an important move of Shanghai in carrying out the spirit of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee and the Eighth Plenary Session of the 8th Municipal Party Committee and in implementing the “Eleventh Five-year Plan for National Economy and Social Development”. These three years are not only an important period for Shanghai to make preparations for the 2010 World Expo and quicken the construction of Shanghai into “Four Centers” and an important stage for Shanghai to take over from the past and set a new course for the future in vigorously pushing forward to reach the general target of building an eco-city, but also a key period in which the contradictions between the development of economy and society and the carrying capacity of resources and environment in Shanghai loom large. In the face of new situations, new tasks and new requirements, to do a good job of environmental protection work of this Municipality while the economy is developing rapidly, it is necessary to firmly carry out the industrial restructuring and the shift of economic growth mode, vigorously promote the pollution control and ecological construction, earnestly reduce the total pollutant emissions and the resources consumption, further improve environmental quality and lay a solid foundation for the target of building an eco-city.

    2. 要 加强对献血者的激励和关爱,探索通过多种形式和多种手段增强无偿献血者的荣誉感和自豪感,形成全社会关爱无偿献血者的良好氛围。要加强临床科学合理用血, 大力推广临床自身输血和成分输血,提高输血安全性。要协同宣传部门,积极开展无偿献血公益性宣传,增强宣传的针对性和有效性。

    Blood donors shall be more incited and well cared for and be more respected to take great pride in blood donating through various means of different forms, and a good atmosphere, in which blood donors are cared by all social members, shall be cultivated gradually. The collected blood shall be used more scientifically and rationally for clinical purposes, and self blood transfusion and constituent blood transfusion shall be advocated strongly so as to improve the safety of blood transfusion. Publicity of public welfare about unpaid blood donation shall be positively conducted with cooperation of publicity departments, and with strengthened pertinence and effectiveness.

    3. 配套房、中低价房在取得房地产权证后5年内确需转让的,房屋所有权人应当向市房地资源局或者区县房地管理部门提出申请,由市房地资源局或者区县房地管理部门按照规定价格回购。

    In case the house owner really needs to transfer the house within 5 years from the date of receipt of the real estate title deed, he/she shall make application to Shanghai Municipal Housing, Land and Resources Administration or the district/county land and resources administrative department, and the said administration or department shall purchase back the house in accordance with the prescribed price.

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