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该怎样“强调”才合适——强调句型和谓语强调讲练(转)  

2008-08-15 10:59:26|  分类: 知识共享 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

“强调”在英语教学中是一个重要的语法项目,也是教学的重点和难点,本文主要从强调句型和谓语强调两个方面对其进行阐述。

 

一、强调句型

 

1. 陈述句的强调句,强调陈述句中的某个成分。

 

为了强调句子中的有些成分,要用强调结构It is(was)+被强调部分+that(who)+其他部分。被强调的成分可以是主语、宾语、状语,但不能是定语或谓语。这种类型的强调句主要注意一下几个方面:

 

1)It在这一结构中作主句的主语,所以即使被强调部分是复数名词,也要用is或was。

 

e.g. Tom and Mark often come to see me.

It is Tom and Mark Who often come to see me.               (强调主语)

 

2)如果被强调部分是时间、地点、方式或原因也不用when, where, how, why, 而用that;强调人时可用who,也可用that。

 

e.g.(1)They set out the day before yesterday.

It was the day before yesterday that they set out    (强调时间状语)

 

(2)We put off the sports meet because of the rain.

It was because of the rain that we put off the sports meet  

(强调原因状语)

 

(3)It was because she was ill that they didn’t ask her to do the job.    (强调原因状语从句)

 

3)如果被强调的代词是原句的主语,代词用主格I, we, he, she...,如果是宾语,则用宾格代词me, us, him, her…....

 

e.g.(1)I am leaving for London next week.

It was I that (who) am leaving for London next week.        

(强调人称代词主格)

 

   (2)You met me yesterday.

It was me that you met yesterday.                       

(强调人称代词宾格)

 

4)被强调部分如果是原句的主语,who或that后面谓语的人称和数应和原句的主语一致。

 

 — Personally, I think it is the salesmanager, rather than the salesgirls, ____ to blame.

 —I agree with you.

A. is    B. that is    C. are    D. who are

 (答案B)

 

2. 一般疑问句的强调句,只需把is(was)提前。

 

e.g. (1) Was it in 1939 that the Second World War broke out?

(2) Is it Professor Wang who teaches you English?

(3) —Was is two months ago _____ you luckily got an opportunity to spend your holiday in Canada?

       — _____. John was the lucky dog..

A. when; Not I    B. when; Not only

C. that; Not all    D. that; Not me                   

(答案D)

 

3.特殊疑问句的强调句,强调特殊疑问句中的疑问词。

 

e.g.  (1) Where did you find the wallet?

Where was it that you found the wallet

 

(2) When shall we meet?

When is it that we shall meet?

 

从上面的例子中我们可以看出,特殊疑问句的强调句是由“特殊疑问词+was(is) it that +陈述句”构成的。但是当含有特殊疑问词的强调句型用在宾语从句中的时候,上述句型应改为‘特殊疑问词+it  was( is) that +陈述句”,即采用陈述句语序。

 

e.g.  (1) — where was it ____ the road accident happened yesterday?

          — In front of the market.

A. when    B. that    C. which    D. how

(答案D)

 

(2) I really don’t know _____ you returned the book to me.

          A. when it was that    B. when was it    

C. when was it that    D. when it was

(答案A)

 

4. 有时可用It might be ...that ...,和It must have been...that...句型表示强调。

 

e.g. (1)It might be his father that you are looking for.

(2)It must have been his brother that you met.

 

5. 强调not...until结构中由until引导的短语(或从句)表示时间状语的句型是:It is(was) not until...+that...+其他部分。

 

e.g.  (1)He didn’t marry until forty.

It was not until forty that he married.

 

(2)Mr. Yang did not leave the lab until he got everything ready for the experiment.

            It was not until he had got everything ready for the experiment that Mr. Yang left the lab.

 

(3)_____ he realized it was too late to return home.

A. Not until dark                 B. It was until dark that

C. It was not until dark that         D. It was dark that                    (答案C)

 

注意:如果not...until放在句首时就要用部分倒装句式,它的语序和在not...until结构中由until引导的短语(或从句)表示时间状语的句型中的语序不同。

 

6. 强调词it与先行词it的区别。

 

强调词it与先行词it的区别可以通过恢复原句的方式来判断,即如果把it is...that...去掉后剩下的成分仍然能组成一个完整的句子,这就是强调句型,否则就不是。

 

It is there that accidents often happen.

→ Accidents often happen there.

 

以上就是强调句型,被强调成分是状语,把it is...that...去掉,还原成后来的非强调句。

 

It is clear that not all boys like football.

 

上面的句子如果去掉it is...that...就成了Clear not all the boys like football.很显然这不是一个完整的句子,因此不是强调句型,而是由it作先行词引导的一个主语从句。

 

7. 其他的一些强调句型:It is/was+时间+since从句,It +时间+before从句,It is/was+时间+when从句。

 

1)It is/was + 时间 + since …,从……已多久了。在这个句型中,主句通常用一般现在时,since从句用过去时,表示一个时间点。

 

e.g.(1)It is five months since I arrived in New York. 我到纽约已经五个月了。

 

(2)It is five months since I was in New York.我离开纽约已经五个月了。

 

注意:例句中five months是作为一个整体看待的,所以用it is。在这类句子中,终止性动词表示从动作发生时算起;如果是状态动词或持续性动词,则从动作或状态结束时算起。

 

2)It is + 时间+ before …。在这个句型和上面一个句型中,时间都是时间段,如years,five days,twenty minutes等。不过主句的时态多用一般将来时或一般过去时,从句的时态要根据主句的时态进行变化。Before前的主句如果是肯定的,翻译成“在……之后才……” 主句如果是否定的,翻译成“不久就……”

 

e.g.(1)It was long before he gave an answer.  

过了好久他才答复我。

 

(2)It was not long before he worked out the difficult maths problem.

不一会儿他就把那道数学题解出来了。

 

(3)It will be years before he comes back.

        过几年他才回来

 

(4)It was five o’clock      he came to see me.

         It was at five o’clock      he came to see me.

It is five years      I left school.

It was five years      he joined the army.

A. when    B. that    C. before    D. since

 

3)It was + 时间 +when从句

在上述句型中it指时间,when引导的是时间状语从句

 

e.g.(1)It was at midnight that I got back home yesterday.

(2)It was midnight when I got back home yesterday.

 

第一句是强调句型,被强调的时时间状语,因此用介词短语表达,而第二句是一般句型,时间以名词的方式表达,用来作表语。

 

二、谓语动词的强调

 

it is...that...结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语,用助动词do, did或does。如:

 

Do come here tomorrow.

He did write to you last week.

Mary does study hard now.

 

三、练习

 

1. — He looks unhappy.

—Yes, but he can’t say what it is ___ is bothering him.

A. as    B. that    C. what    D. which

 

2. (1) It was not until I had read your letter ___ the truth.

(2) Not until I had read your letter ____ the truth.

A. did I learn    B. I didn’t learn

C. that I learned    D. that I had learned

 

3. You fix my what? It was to get my brakes repaired____ I brought my car in, not to get the engine replaced!

 A. so that    B. when    C. that    D. because

 

4. It was some time ___ we realized the truth.

 A. when    B. until    C. since    D. before

 

5. Was it when he was training in the field _____ the captain got hurt?

 A. when    B. that    C. how    D. where

 

参考答案:1.B    2.C A    3.C    4.D    5.B

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