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常见常用法律英语词汇笺注 > 拉丁词汇篇(转)  

2008-06-11 15:44:08|  分类: 知识共享 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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a fortiori——更加

 prep. Latin for "with even stronger reason," which applies to a situation in which if one thing is true then it can be inferred that a second thing is even more certainly true. Thus, if Abel is too young to serve as administrator, then his younger brother Cain certainly is too young.

【注】  a fortiori(更加),系拉丁语,意为“有更充分的理由”。

 

A mensa et thoro——法定分居

A mensa et thoro is a Latin term meaning "from table and bed" which became used in English as "from bed and board."

A kind of divorce which does not dissolve the marriage bond, but merely authorizes a separate life of the husband and wife. Neither spouse has the right to remarry where there is a divorce a mensa et thoro; only parties who have been awarded a divorce a vinculo matrimonii, the more common type of divorce, can do so.

【注】  即一种不解散婚姻关系的离婚。处于此种状态的配偶均不得再婚。

 

A vinculo matrimonii——解除婚姻、离婚

literally "from the bond of marriage." Such a divorce generally enables the parties to marry again.

【注】  意为“解除婚姻关系”。

 

Ab initio——自始无效

[Latin, From the beginning; from the first act; from the inception.]An agreement is said to be void ab initio自始无效 if it has at no time had any legal validity. The illegality of the conduct or the revelation of the real facts makes the entire situation illegal ab initio (from the beginning), not just from the time the wrongful behavior occurs.

【注】  形容事件由开始时的状态,例如合约从开始便已经无效,称为“The contract was void ab initio”。

『笺』  “自始无效”(void ab initio)是一项合同法律关系中广泛运用的制度,它的意义在于,一旦某个合同或某项合同条款因违反法律或公共秩序而被宣告无效,那么宣告无效的效力将上溯到合同签订的那一刻起,即合同自始都是无效的。如果合同已部分履行,那么被宣告自始无效的合同的已履行部分将被恢复原状,回到合同履行前的状态。自始无效是一项古老的法律制度,它对于保护无效合同中善意当事人一方的利益具有极其现实的意义。

一般而言,合同的无效都是指自始无效。合同的无效要和合同的“撤销”区别开来,“撤销”指的是合同自撤销一刻起丧失效力,而“无效”则是自始无效,经撤销的合同在撤销前的履行行为依然有效。在英美法系国家,不论在以判例形式出现的普遍法中,还是以制定法形式出现的成文法中,也都贯穿着“自始无效”的原则

 

Aberemurder——故意杀人犯

obsoleteAn apparent, plain, or downright murder. It was used to distinguish a wilful murder, from a chance-medley, or manslaughter. Source: Bouviers Law Dictionary 1856 Edition

【注】  它通常指别于过失杀人、无过失杀人。

 

Amicus curiae——法庭之友、法官的顾问(或译为“法庭特聘顾问”)

Amicus curiae (Latin, plural amici curiae) is defined as, "A friend of the court. One not a party to a case who volunteers to offer information on a point of law or some other aspect of the case to assist the court in deciding a matter before it". The information may be a legal opinion in the form of a brief, testimony that has not been solicited by any of the parties, or a learned treatise on a matter that bears on the case.

“……a phrase that literally means "friend of the court" -- someone who is not a party to the litigation, but who believes that the court's decision may affect its interest."William H. Rehnquist, The Supreme Court, page 89.

【注】  “法庭之友”(amicus curiaefriends of the court),根据布莱克法律词典的解释,是指“对法院有疑问的事实或法律上的观点善意地提醒法院注意或向法院报告的人”。据此可以理解,所谓的“法庭之友”,通常是对特定案件的事实或法律问题具有专业特长或独到见解的专业人士,其向法院提供的报告将有助于法庭加深对特定案件的理解从而形成公正合理的判断。在这个意义上说,“法庭之友”对特定案件的解决是有积极意义的。

『笺』  “法庭之友”有着悠久的历史,它肇始于罗马法,发展于英国普通法,而后移植到美国法中得以繁荣。“法庭之友”发展至今,也为许多大陆法系国家的法院所采用,如法国;国际仲裁机构也有一定程度的采用。在国外学者的相关论著中,提及“法庭之友”时,亦会用“Amicus”的缩写;相应地,“法庭之友陈述”也有“Amicus Curiae Briefs”和“Amicus Briefs”两种表达方式。

 

    Anno Domini/A.D.——耶穌紀元……年、公元……年

    Anno Domini (Latin : "In the year of (Our) Lord"), abbreviated as AD or A.D., defines an epoch based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth. AD is also an abbreviation for Christian Era. Similarly, Before Christ (from the Ancient Greek "Christos" or "Anointed One", referring to Jesus), abbreviated as BC or B.C., is used in the English language to denote years before the start of this epoch. Some prefer the alternatives 'CE' and 'BCE', arguing that they are more neutral terms

【注】  Anno Domini耶穌紀元……年、公元……年),西拉丁语,意为“我们在主的时代”,一般缩写为A.D.公元的時間計算起於耶穌基督出生之日。

 

Anno Regni/ A. R.——在……统治时代、在……朝代

'in the year of (his/her) reign'.

【注】  Anno Regni在……统治时代、在……朝代),一般缩写为A. R.A.R.V.R.22Anno Regni Victoriae Reginae vicesimo secundo)指在维多利亞女王统治的第22年。

 

Arguendo——法律中的前提假定

for purposes of argument, as in "assuming 'arguendo' that my opponent's contentions are correct." [In Latin, in this context, "arguendo" would mean "for the sake of arguing concerning another thing."

The term is most often used in the following logical context:

P1 argues "X is a result of Y"

P2 responds "While you may or may not be correct that X is a result of Y, assuming 'arguendo,' that you are correct, you still fail to account for the existence of Z, which makes null your contention."

【注】  “法律中的前提假定”通常用于“为了讨论另外有关的事情”。

 

De facto——事实上的、实际的

Latin for "in fact." Often used in place of "actual" to show that the court will treat as a fact authority being exercised or an entity acting as if it had authority, even though the legal requirements have not been met.

【注】  De facto(事实上的、实际的),de facto系拉丁文,意谓“虽法律上站不住,但事实上却为人所承认”。例如:de facto segregation(事实上的种族隔离);a de facto government(事实政府);de facto standard(实质标准)。

又如,de facto corporation:地下工厂,又称“事实上公司”(corporation de facto),即指未领有政府发给的合法执照,便开始营业或开工生产的公司或工厂。该公司或工厂。该公司或工厂虽未合法登记成立,但其法律行为并非无效,例如其负责人与他人签订契约后,不得以该公司或工厂未经政府许可成立而拒绝履约。

『笺』  De facto marriage(事实婚姻),是与法律婚姻相对而言的婚姻形式,指符合结婚的法定实质要件的男女双方未办理结婚登记即以夫妻名义公开、长久同居生活的两性结合。英国、德国、美国、日本等国法律都承认事实婚姻,我国立法对事实婚姻的态度经历了“承认-不承认-承认”三个阶段。

 

De jure——法理上的、合法的

Latin for "lawful," as distinguished from de facto (actual).

【注】  De jure(合法的、法理上的),系拉丁文,意谓“法律许可的、为法律所承认的”,它与de facto (actual)相对如,de jure recognition (法律承认);de jure corporation(已注册/立案公司);de jure separate legal entities(合法的独立法人);de jure population (常住人口)。

 

De minimis——微量的、微不足道的

Latin for "of minimum importance" or "trifling." Essentially it refers to something or a difference that is so little, small, minuscule or tiny that the law does not refer to it and will not consider it. In a million dollar deal, a $10 mistake is de minimis.

【注】  De minimis(微量的),系拉丁文,意谓“不重要的、微小的”。如,de minimis exemption (低额豁免);de minimis percentage (微量比例)

 

En banc——满席审理、全席审理、全院联席审理

French for "in the bench," it signifies a decision by the full court of all the appeals judges in jurisdictions where there is more than one three- or four-judge panel. The larger number sit in judgment when the court feels there is a particularly significant issue at stake or when requested by one or both parties to the case and agreed to by the court.

【注】  En Banc(满席审理),指法院全体法官出庭审理某一案件,亦称大法庭审理,或全院联席审理。这种审理方式一般用于有较大影响的或法院试图将审判结果确立为判例的案件。以满庭审理方式确立的判例,比其他判例具有更大约束力。

 

Et al.——以及其他人

abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii meaning "and others." This is commonly used in shortening the name of a case, as in "Pat Murgatroyd v. Sally Sherman, et al."

【注】  Et al.(以及其他)是拉丁文et alii的缩写,其意谓“以及其他”。

 

Et seq.——以及下列等等、及以下所述

abbreviation for the Latin phrase et sequentes meaning "and the following." It is commonly used by lawyers to include numbered lists, pages or sections after the first number is stated, as in "the rules of the road are found in Vehicle Code Section 1204, et seq."

【注】  Et seq.(以及下列等等)是拉丁文et sequentes的缩写,意谓“以及下列等等、及一下所述”。

 

    Et ux.——及其妻、与其妻子

    abbreviation for the Latin words et uxor meaning "and wife." It is usually found in deeds, tax assessment rolls and other documents in the form "John Alden et ux.," to show that the wife as well as the husband own property.

【注】  Et ux.(及其妻)是拉丁文et uxor的缩写,意谓还有他的妻子。此词通常用于描述共有财产。

 

Ex Parte——单方

Latin meaning "for one party," referring to motions, hearings or orders granted on the request of and for the benefit of one party only. This is an exception to the basic rule of court procedure that both parties must be present at any argument before a judge, and to the otherwise strict rule that an attorney may not notify a judge without previously notifying the opposition.

【注】  在公平的原则下,诉讼的程序一般都是以双方“Inter Parte”形式进行,即是与讼双方同时有机会向法庭作出申辩。但在某些特殊的情况下,例如对申请人有人身或财物安全的迫胁,或者不让对方有机会毁灭证据等,是可以容许以单方形式进行。

 

Habeas corpus——人身保护令、人身保护权

Latin for "you have the body," A court order used to bring a person physically before a court in order to test the legality of the person's detention. Usually, it is directed to the official or person detaining another, commanding him to bring the person to court for the judge to determine if that person has been denied liberty without due process of law.

【注】  Habeas corpus人身保护令),作为一种司法令,是向那些非法羁押他人者提出的命令,也就是必须在规定的时间内把被羁押者带到法官面前,其作用是对羁押或监禁的合法性进行审查,对违法的羁押或监禁予以纠正。这一令状早期曾由英国国王亲自签发,但后来签发权逐渐成为法院的权力。1679年,英国议会颁布了著名的《人身保护法》(The habeas corpus Act1679),允许那些因受到刑事指控而被长期羁押的人直接向法官申请人身保护令,从而获得保释。根据这一法律,那些依人身保护令而被释放者不得被以同一理由再次予以逮捕或者羁押(但发现新证据不在此限)。

在英美两国,获得“人身保护令”的权利被视为是宪法所确立的“最重要的人权”,是“对个人自由的最好的和充分的体现”。根据美国的司法实践,任何受到羁押的人如能证明这一羁押违反宪法,都可以向法院申请发布“人身保护令”,获得这一司法令状的人应立即被释放,即使检控方对这一令状的发布提出上诉。

 

i.e.——也就是,那就是、即

        abbreviation for id est, which is Latin for "that is" or "that is to say." It is used to expand or explain a general term as in "his children (i.e. Matthew, Mark, Luke and Joan)." It should not be confused with "e.g.," which means "for example."

【注】  i.e.是拉丁文id est的缩写,其意谓“也就是、那就是、即、换句话说、就是说”。千万注意不要将其和"e.g.,"相混淆。

 

in absentia——缺席、不到场、缺庭

         Latin for "in absence," or more fully, in one's absence. Occasionally a criminal trial is conducted without the defendant being present when he/she walks out or escapes after the trial has begun, since the accused has thus waived the constitutional right to face one's accusers.

【注】  in absentia,系拉丁文,意谓“缺席、不到场”。

 

in camera——禁止旁听

      Latin for "in chambers." This refers to a hearing or discussions with the judge in the privacy of his chambers (office rooms) or when spectators and jurors have been excluded from the courtroom.

【注】  in camera(禁止旁听),它是指在法官的办公室进行秘密的听讼和证书检查等,而观众和陪审团被拒绝参与旁听的。禁止旁听聆讯一般是在正式庭审前进行,故其不同于公开聆讯。

 

in forma pauperisIFP——以贫民身份诉讼、赤贫申诉书

Latin for "in the form of a pauper," referring to a party to a lawsuit who gets filing fees waived by filing a declaration of lack of funds (has no money to pay). These declarations are most often found in divorces by young marrieds or poor defendants who have been sued.

【注】  in forma pauperisIFP)系拉丁语,意谓以乞丐的形式在这类申诉中,当事人不必交纳300美元的申诉费,其递交程序和文书规范也大大简化,申诉书不必打印,只要写在纸上能看清就行。可是,由于这类申诉人的法律知识和文化水平普通较低,即使苦大仇深,却经常辞不达意。据统计,以“赤贫人申诉书”(IFP)形式申诉被最高法案立案审理的机会只有1%。相较之下,如果聘请律师以正常方式申诉,被立案审理的机会大约为10%

 

in loco parentis——代替父母

         Latin for "instead of a parent" or "in place of a parent," this phrase identifies a foster parent, a county custodial agency or a boarding school which is taking care of a minor, including protecting his/her rights. Thus, Boys' Town is legally in loco parentis to Johnny Boarder, aged 15, if and when he needs legal help.

【注】in loco parentis拉丁语,其意谓“代替父母”,即学生在学校期间,其与学校的关系类似于子女与父母的关系,学校在取得对学生的类似于父母的管教权利的同时赋有监护的义务。这一理论在解释学生为未成年人时尚可通行,而适用于大学学生则有所不合。

 

in pari delicto——同等过错、均等过错

        Latin for "in equal fault," which means that two (or more) people are all at fault or are all guilty of a crime.

【注】  in pari delicto系拉丁语,意谓“同等过错”,既当事人双方都有过错或都有罪责。

 

in personam——对人

         Latin for "directed toward a particular person." In a lawsuit in which the case is against a specific individual, that person must be served with a summons and complaint to give the court jurisdiction to try the case, and the judgment applies to that person and is called an "in personam judgment."

【注】in personam(对人)是拉丁语,意谓“针对特定的人、指向某特定的人”,其与in rem(对物)相对。与之相应的有:对物权(right in rem)和对人权(right in personam),对物的诉讼(actions in rem)和对人的诉讼(actions in personam),对物的判决(judgment or decrees in rem)和对人的判决(judgment or decrees in personam)。

『笺』  奥斯丁在《法理学讲义》中指出:“jus in remjus in personam这两个术语是中世纪的民法学家发明的。而所谓对物只是表明权利的行使范围,而不是权利行使的对象,它表明权利的行使针对所有的他人,而in personam实际上是in personam certam sive determinatam的一种简略的说法,它也是表明权利行使的范围,即权利的行使针对特定的人。”可见,奥斯丁认为所有的法律权利都是对人权,不存在对物的权利,因为物不是法律上的主体,而所谓的对物权只是对抗许多人的“对人权”的总和的简称而已,即对世权(real rightright in rem)。后来,霍菲尔德在奥斯丁的基础上主张用多方面的权利(multital right)和少量的权利(paucital right)来分别替代“对物权”和“对人权”的概念。

 

In Propria Persona——亲自

         Lat. 'In ones own proper person.' To represent ones self in court without assistance of an attorney, at least 'on the record.' Often shortened to 'in pro per.'

【注】  In Propria Persona系拉丁语,意谓“亲自(指无律师帮助)、代表自己”。In Propria Persona,有时简写成in pro per,它指一个人在诉讼中由于没有律师而充任自己的律师。

 

In Rem Jurisdiction——对物管辖权

       Rem is Latin for 'thing.' When a court exercises in rem jurisdiction, it exercises authority over a thing, rather than a person. For example, if a divorcing couple asks a court to supervise the sale of their family home, the court exercises in rem jurisdiction over the house. Usually, the property must be located in the same county as the court for it to have in rem jurisdiction.

【注】  Rem,是拉丁语,意谓“物、东西”。in rem即“对物或关于物的” from Latin "against or about a thing,")。

美国法院(包括联邦法院与州法院)对民事案件行使的管辖权的根据通常分成三类:对人管辖权(In Personam Jurisdiction)、对物管辖权(In Rem Jurisdiction)与准对物管辖权(Quasi In Rem Jurisdiction)。

对物管辖权,指诉讼标的(主要指财产)所在地的法院有权对该诉讼进行管辖。对物诉讼的管辖权以有关当事人的住所或习惯居所在法院地内或有关标的物在法院地内为基础。准对物管辖权,指法院因为对其管辖区域内的债权采取扣押措施而对案件产生的管辖权。

对人管辖权是指,某法院具有确定当事人之间权利和义务的权限,并且其本身具有约束当事人的权力,即可对特定的当事人行使管辖权,以前美国法院的对人管辖通常是以被告人出现为基础的,它要求法院在其管辖区内送达传票和起诉书给被告。现在美国法也承认住所可以作为行使对人管辖权的依据。对于在美国没有住所的人,如果其与本州有“最少联系”(minimum contacts),也可以行使管辖权。在此基础上,近年来,美国法院发展了所谓的“长臂管辖权”(Long Arm Jurisdiction),例如伊利诺斯州于1955年首先制定了《长臂管辖法》(Long Arm Statute),其中第十七节规定,外州居民在该州进行如下行为,就对其产生管辖权:(1)在州内进行任何交易行为;(2)在州内为侵权行为;(3)对在州内的不动产所有、占有或使用;(4)对州内的人、财产或其他风险有保险的契约。此后其它各州纷纷效仿,形成了当今在美国各州风行的“长臂管辖权”。

 

inter alia——和其他的事物、除了别的因素以外、其它以外

         Latin for "among other things." This phrase is often found in legal pleadings and writings to specify one example out of many possibilities. Example: "The judge said, inter alia, that the time to file the action had passed."

【注】  inter alia,系拉丁语,意谓“在其他事物中”。在法律文件书信中,经常会出现这个拉丁词,意思是在"当中列出这一项",即是尚有其它事项。

 

inter vivos——当事人活着时有效的

Latin for "among the living," usually referring to the transfer of property by agreement between living persons and not by a gift through a will.

【注】  inter vivos,是拉丁语,意谓“在活着时”。它通常指当事人在生前通过协议进行财产转移而不是通过遗嘱来进行。

 

Intra vivres——权力以内

within the legal power or authority or a person or official or body etc.

【注】  当事人得到授权行事,必须在权力范围以内进行,才算是合法的行为,并没有得到授权而进行的事项,都属于权力以外( ultra vivres)

 

ipse dixit——亲口所述、武断的言词

Latin for "he himself said it," meaning the only proof we have of the fact is that this person said it.

【注】  ipse dixit,系拉丁语,意谓“他自己说的”。

 

Ipso facto——根据事实本身、事实使然

Latin for "by the fact itself." An expression more popular with comedians imitating lawyers than with lawyers themselves. A simple example: "a blind person, ipso facto, is not entitled to a driver's license."

【注】  Ipso facto系拉丁语,意谓“根据事实本身”。它指单以行为或事实本身所产生的效果,便已经可以对事情作出合理的判断。举个简单的例子,“一个盲人,无法获得驾驶证资格,这是事实使然。”

 

Magna Carta——大宪章

         Latin for "Great Charter," it was a document delineating a series of laws establishing the rights of English barons and major landowners and limiting the absolute authority of the King of England. It became the basis for the rights of English citizens. It was signed reluctantly by King John on June 15, 1215, at Runnymede, at a table set up in a field under a canopy surrounded by the armed gentry. The Magna Carta was confirmed by John's son, Henry III, and in turn by Henry's son, Edward I. Essentially a document for the nobility, it became the basis of individual rights as a part of the English Constitution, which is generally more custom than written documents. It is also spelled Magna Charta.

【注】  大宪章(Magna Carter)是英国于1215年订立的宪法,用来限制英国国王(主要是当时的约翰)的绝对权力。订立大宪章的主要原因是因为教皇、英王约翰及封建贵族对皇室权力出现不同的意见。大宪章要求皇室放弃部分权力,及尊重司法过程,接受王权受法律的限制。

1215610日,英格兰的封建贵族在伦敦聚集,挟持英格兰国王约翰。约翰被迫赞成贵族提出的“男爵法案”(Articles of the Barons)。同年615日,约翰在兰尼美德(RunnyMede)为法案盖上皇室的盖章。而贵族则在619日重申对约翰效忠。最后皇室秘书将国王与贵族间的协议正式登录,即成为最初的大宪章,并将副本抄送至各地,由指定的皇室官员及主教保存。

『笺』  由约翰国王签署的《大宪章》(Magna Carta,the Great Charter),亦称“自由大宪章”,是英国宪政史上最重要的文件。虽然它被称为 Charter, 但它并不包含现代国家宪法的基本要素,形式上更类似于一篇法律契约。它包含了61个条款,每一条都涉及封建统治和习惯的细节问题。和以后的斯图亚特王朝的《自由宪章》,美国的《人权宣言》和《独立宣言》所不同的是,它虽然有这样的实践和理念,但并没有包括论述民主原则和民权的内容,它没有提及议会,也没有反映任何除了贵族以外其他阶层人的利益,更没有提出后来关于平等自由的那些伟大口号。

1215年约翰签署的第一份大宪章并未被保存下来,只有四份同时期的抄本现仍分别存放在英国的国家图书馆、林肯大教堂和萨士巴利大教堂,另外还有131297年以前的大宪章现也仍被保存。1952年,澳洲政府以12,500英镑购得一份1297年的大宪章,放在首都坎培拉的国会展览,美国富商珮里(Ross Perot)亦于1984年购得一份1297年的大宪章,现放在首都华盛顿国家资料馆,与独立宣言及美国宪法一同展出。

 

Mala Prohibita——法律所禁止的、非法的

Those things which are prohibited by law, and therefore unlawful.

 A distinction was formerly made in respect of contracts, between mala prohibita and mala in se; but that distinction has been exploded, and, it is now established that when the provisions of an act of the legislature have for their object the protection of the public, it makes no difference with respect to contracts, whether the thing be prohibited absolutely or under a penalty.

【注】  Mala in se(本身错误的)指实质上违反社会伦理道德的违法行为,这种行为因侵害了公共秩序、善良风俗而为一般社会正义所不容。Mala prohibia(法律禁止的)则是本质上并不违反伦理道德,而是因为维护行政管理秩序的需要而为法律所禁止的行为。

在刑事犯罪中,Mala in se寓恶于已,不待法律之特别规定即可认为是犯罪;mala prohibita则寓恶于禁,必须由法律之专门规定才能成立犯罪。 显然,mala in se寓居的范围早已超出了实定法的界限。

 

Mala Praxis——医疗失误、医疗过失

         Latin expression, to signify bad or unskilful practice in a physician or other professional person, such as a midwife, lawyer, etc., whereby the health or welfare of the patient or client is injured. The failure of a professional to follow the accepted standards of practice of his or her profession.

【注】  Mala Praxis系拉丁语,威廉·黑石爵士(Sir William Blackstone)1768年编写其法律巨著《英格兰法律评论(Commentaries on the Laws of England)》时,mala praxis (即现代英文malpractice)定义由于内科医师、外科医师或药师等人的疏忽与不当管理……所造成的伤害。 (如此的伤害)破坏了患者对该医师的信任,并且也导致病患的毁灭。

『笺』  据统计,英国每年有四万多人死于医疗失误;美国每年有近十万人死于医疗失误。

 

Malum in se——本身错误的、不法的

Latin referring to an act that is "wrong in itself," in its very nature being illegal because it violates the natural, moral or public principles of a civilized society.

【注】  Malum in se系拉丁语,意谓“本身错误的”。它指的是违反自然的、道德的、善风良俗的行为,如杀人、防火、投毒等。

 

mens rea——犯罪意图、犯意

         Latin for a "guilty mind," or criminal intent in committing the act.

【注】  mens rea(犯罪意图)系拉丁语,意谓“犯罪的意图”,即实施犯罪行为的目的。

犯罪意图(mens rea),又称为犯罪心理(guilty mind),就是行为人在实施社会危害行为时应受社会谴责的心理状态,它是英美法系犯罪构成的主观要件。“没有犯罪意图的行为,不能构成犯罪”(ac-tusnon facit reumnisi mens sit rea)是英美刑法的一条原则,它充分体现了犯罪意图在构成犯罪中的重要意义。

在美国刑法中,犯罪意图分为以下四种:①蓄意(mention),指行为人行动时自觉目的就是引起法律规定为犯罪的结果,或者自觉目的就是实施法律规定为犯罪的行为。②明知(knowingly),指行为人行动时明知道他的行为就是法律规定为犯罪的行为或者明知道存在着法律规定为犯罪的情节。③轻率(recklessly),指行为人轻率地对待法律规定为犯罪的结果或情节,当行动时他认识到并有意漠视可能发生此种结果或者存在此种情节的实质性的无可辩解的危险。④疏忽(negligence),指行为人疏忽地对待法律规定为犯罪的结果或情节,当行为时他没有察觉到可能发生此种结果或者存在此种情节的实质性的无可辩解的危险。从犯罪意图的内容来看,主要是行为人对于其犯罪行为的一种心理状态,它是构成犯罪的基本因素。

『笺』  mens rea(犯罪意图)相对应的概念是actus reus(犯罪行为)。actus reus (犯罪行为)是英美法系犯罪构成的客观要件。从广义上说,actus reus是指除犯罪心态以外的一切犯罪要件,包括犯罪行为、犯罪结果和犯罪情节。犯罪行为是法律予以禁止并力求防止的有害行为,是构成犯罪的首要因素。犯罪行为的形式有作为(action)、不作为(omission)和持有(possession)。从行为主体看,actus reus又可分为自然人犯罪和法人犯罪(corporation crime)

 

Modus operandi——惯技、惯用手法

        from Latin, a criminal investigation term for "way of operating," which may prove the accused has a pattern of repeating the same criminal acts using the same method.

【注】  modus operandi(惯技),系拉丁语,意谓“操作方式、实施方法”,它指刑事犯罪分子实施犯罪行为的一贯方式、方法。

 

Nolle prosequi——原告撤回起诉

Latin for "we shall no longer prosecute," which is a declaration made to the judge by a prosecutor in a criminal case (or by a plaintiff in a civil lawsuit) either before or during trial, meaning the case against the defendant is being dropped.

【注】  nolle prosequi系拉丁语,意谓“我们不再起诉”,它是指民事诉讼原告人(plaintiff)或刑事诉讼起诉人(prosecutor)请求停止对案件的起诉。

 

Nolo contendere——无罪申诉、放弃辩护、放弃抗辩

Latin for "I will not contest" the charges, which is a plea made by a defendant to a criminal charge, allowing the judge to then find him/her guilty, often called a "plea of no contest."

【注】  nolo contendere(无罪申诉)系拉丁语,意谓“我不再对此抗争、我不会再争论下去”,刑事案件中的被告既不认罪但又放弃辩护、抗辩,实际上等于其已表示服罪。

 

Non est factum——这不是我所签署的

It is not his or her deed.  Non est factum is a defence to an action founded on a document where the defendant alleges that even though they may have signed the document they did not know what the document contained.

【注】  Non est factum系拉丁语,意谓“这不是我的契约”(it is not my deed)。很多时候,此词是作为被告的辩词,声称被告没有签署文件,又或被告签署文件的时候并不知道文件的内容。

 

Onus Probandi——举证责任

         The burden of the proof. It is a general rule that the party who alleges the affirmative of any proposition shall prove it. It is also a general rule that the onus probandi lies.

【注】   Onus Probandi是拉丁文,意谓“提出证据的责任”(Burden of Proof)。它的一般含义是指“谁主张,谁举证”,即是指在诉讼中,当事人必须为自己的诉讼主张提供证据,如果举不出证据或证据不能证明主张,将承担败诉的风险。例外规则“举证责任转移或倒置”和“法庭主动或协助收集证据”,前两者是当事人行使诉权所引出的必然规则,最后一点是法庭行使审判权的或然规则。

『笺』  1883年,德国学者尤里乌斯·格拉查在其论文集《刑事诉讼导论》中首次将举证责任区分为实质上的举证责任Materielle Beweislast)和诉讼上的举证责任”(Prozessuale Beweislast)。在英美法系国家,举证责任一般用“burden of proof”来表示。1975年制定的《美国联邦证据规则》第301条首次以制定法形式将举证责任区分为证据提出责任burden of producing proof)和说服责任burden of persuasion)。

 

Parens Patriae——国家亲权、国家监护权、祖国之父

         Lat. "parent of his country." Used when the government acts on behalf of a child or mentally ill person. Refers to the "state" as the guardian of minors and incompetent people.

【注】  Parens Patriae(国家亲权),即“国家是未成年人及无民事行为能力人的最高监护人”。它强调国家和政府应对未成年人及无民事行为能力人承担起保护与教育的职责。

『笺』  Parens Patriae(祖国之父),是拉丁文,意谓“他国家的父母”。Parens Patriae(祖国之父有时也作Parens Patriae,其复数形式为Patres Patriae)是罗马共和国和罗马帝国时期,一个向其拥有者表示敬意的头衔。该头衔也是由罗马元老院授予。第一个接受祖国之父头衔的人乃是著名的演说家西塞罗。第二个获此殊荣的便是大名鼎鼎的尤利乌斯·恺撒

 

Pendente Lite——诉讼期间、诉讼中

Pendente lite means "pending the litigation." When the court makes an order, for example, for temporary alimony or child support, which lasts only until the date of a divorce trial or until the parties to a lawsuit work out a settlement, it is a pendente lite order.

【注】  Pendente Lite(诉讼期间),系拉丁语,意谓“诉讼尚未结案、诉讼尚未完结”。如法院签署的临时生活费判令,直到离婚案审理结束或双方已经达成一致,它就是一项诉讼期间的指令。

 

per capita——按人头、按人数分配的

Latin for "by head," meaning to be determined by the number of people. To find the per capita cost, the total number of persons are added up and the bill, tax or benefits are divided equally among those persons.

Example: Thompson dies leaving his property to be shared equally between his two daughters and one son, because his will states that the estate is to be divided ‘per stirpes’.

【注】  per capita系拉丁语,意谓“按人头的、按人数的”。

 

per curiam——依法院、由法院所定

Latin for "by the court," defining a decision of an appeals court as a whole in which no judge is identified as the specific author.

【注】  per curiam系拉丁语,意谓“经由法院的”。它是指上诉法院的一致性判决,不须法官在上面签名。

『笺』  与通常的法院意见(opinion of the court)表述不同,这里的Per Curiam Opinion(法院意见),它一般用于案情简单且紧迫的案件,其判决相对简单,无需对法院决定的理由作深入展开的总结。也不要求法官在决定上签名。

与英国最高法院大法官各写自己的裁决意见书不同,美国最高法院一般要写一个统一的意见书。这个判决意见书无论是全体法官一致同意、还是多数法官同意,都被称为法庭意见( opinion of the court)。有些法官尽管同意判决结果,但可能不同意断案的根据和逻辑,便会另外提出附合或补充意见( concurring opinions,也可称附加意见,附议)。那些根本不同意判决决定的法官也发表自己的意见,通称为少数意见( minority opinions),一般是各自撰写自己的异议(dissenting opinion)。

 

per diem——每日、每天

Latin for "per day," it is short for payment of daily expenses and/or fees of an employee or an agent.

【注】  per diem系拉丁文,意谓“每日、每天”。它是指每天支付员工或代理人的费用。

 

Post mortem——验尸、尸体解剖

Latin for "after death," an examination of a dead body to determine cause of death, generally called an autopsy.

【注】  Post mortem系拉丁文,意谓“死后的”。它是指对尸体进行检查以查明其死因,通常称为验尸。

 

Prima facie——乍一看、根据初步印象

Latin for "at first look," or "on its face," referring to a lawsuit or criminal prosecution in which the evidence before trial is sufficient to prove the case unless there is substantial contradictory evidence presented at trial.

【注】  prima facie系拉丁文,意谓“乍一看、根据其表面现象”。它指审前的证据足以支持该案件,除非在庭审中有充足的相反证据。

另外如Prima facie determination(初步决定)、prima facie evidence (表面证据)prima facie character (初显性特征)

 

pro bono——无偿的、为公众利益的、非为谋求利润的

Short for pro bono publico, Latin for "for the public good," legal work performed by lawyers without pay to help people with legal problems and limited or no funds, or provide legal assistance to organizations involved in social causes such as environmental, consumer, minority, youth, battered women and education organizations and charities.

【注】  pro bono系拉丁语,是pro bono publico的缩写形式,意谓“为公共利益的”。它通常指指那些为穷困的客户、宗教群体、慈善机构及其他非盈利实体而免费提供法律服务的律师。

它也指以公共福利为目的的行为,即为公共福利,而非为了谋求个人利润的行为。

 

pro forma——形式上的、预计的、模拟的、预提数

1) prep. Latin for "as a matter of form," the phrase refers to court rulings merely intended to facilitate the legal process (to move matters along).

2) n. an accountant's proposed financial statement for a business based on the assumption that certain events occurred, such as a 20% increase in annual sales or 6% inflation.

【注】  pro forma系拉丁语,意谓“作为形式的、例行公事的”。pro forma invoice(形式发票)、Pro forma charter-party(租约格式)。

就财经而言,它是指计算财务业绩,以强调当时或预计数据的方法。例如,模拟财务信息(pro forma financial information),是指为了给投资者提供某些特定交易影响的信息,即这些交易在早些时候发生,对历史财务报表产生影响。

 

pro rata——按比例、成比例的

From Latin for "in proportion," referring to a share to be received or an amount to be paid based on the fractional share of ownership, responsibility or time used.

【注】  pro rata系拉丁语,意谓“按比例的、成比例的”。如pro rata freight(比例运费)、pro rata premium(按日计算的保险费)、Pro rata distribution clause(按比例分摊)、pro rata basis (按比例分摊计算办法)。

 

pro tanto——到此为止、以此为限、至某一程度

Latin for "only to that extent." Example: a judge gives an order for payments for one year, pro tanto.

【注】  pro tanto系拉丁语,意谓“只达到那样的程度”。例如法官下达了一项支付令,限期为一年。

 

pro tem——暂时的、目前的

short for the Latin pro tempore, temporarily or for the time being. In law, judge pro tem normally refers to a judge who is sitting temporarily for another judge or to an attorney who has been appointed to serve as a judge as a substitute for a regular judge.

【注】  pro tem 是拉丁文pro tempore的缩写,意谓“临时的、暂时的”。法律上,pro tem通常指一个法官暂时代理另一个法官的职务,或律师被任命为暂代法官。如,President Pro Tempore(临时主席)、Speaker Pro Tempore (临时议长)pro tempore appointment (临时委任)。

 

       quantum meruit——按照服务计值,按合理价格支付、(无合同规定时)支付合理费用、合理给付

Latin for "as much as he deserved," the actual value of services performed. Quantum meruit determines the amount to be paid for services when no contract exists or when there is doubt as to the amount due for the work performed but done under circumstances when payment could be expected. This may include a physician's emergency aid, legal work when there was no contract, or evaluating the amount due when outside forces cause a job to be terminated unexpectedly. If a person sues for payment for services in such circumstances the judge or jury will calculate the amount due based on time and usual rate of pay or the customary charge, based on quantum meruit by implying a contract existed.

【注】  quantum meruit的含义为“所得不应多于应得”就是说,在没有明确合同约定的价钱的情况下,据市场普遍价格应该收到合理的报酬。

 

     Sine die——不定期、无限期

    [Latin, Without day.] Without day; without assigning a day for a further meeting or hearing.

    【注】  Sine die系拉丁语,意为“不定期、无限期”。通常案件被无期押后,"adjourned sine die"即法庭没有制定一个押后的日子,除非一方将文件再整理好,再要求排期聆讯为止。

 

    Stare decisis——遵循先例、遵循先例原则

    [Latin, Let the decision stand.] The policy of courts to abide by or adhere to principles established by decisions in earlier cases.

    【注】  stare decisis(遵循先例)源自拉丁语stare decisis et non quieta movere to stand by things decided, and not to disturb setteled points),即“遵循先例而不扰乱其所确立的”缩略语。根据遵循先例原则(doctrine of stare decisis——又称司法先例原则(doctrine of judicial precedent)、先例拘束原则(doctrine of binding precedent),一个法院通常应该遵循它自己在先的判决,每个法院应该遵循层级较高的法院的判决。遵循先例原则(stare decisis)是判例法制度的一个基本原则,是判例法的基础。确切地说,是指一个判决中所含有的法律原则或规则,对其他法院(或者甚至对本法院)以后的审判,具有约束力(binding effect)或者说服力(persuasive effect)

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