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常见常用法律英语词汇笺注 > 法律程序篇(转)  

2008-06-11 15:39:12|  分类: 知识共享 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  Secondary evidence——代替性证据、间接证据、次要证据

    Secondary evidence is evidence that has been reproduced from an original document or substituted for an original item. For example, a photocopy of a document or photograph would be considered secondary evidence. Another example would be an exact replica of an engine part that was contained in a motor vehicle. If the engine part is not the very same engine part that was inside the motor vehicle involved in the case, it is considered secondary evidence.

    【注】  所谓代替性证据(Secondary evidence)即原始证据的复制品或替代品。


   Specific performance——强制履行

    An extraordinary equitable remedy that compels a party to execute a contract according to the precise terms agreed upon or to execute it substantially so that, under the circumstances, justice will be done between the parties.

    【注】  Specific performance(强制履行),是合约违约一方对另外一方的一种补偿方法。若遵守一方已履行合约所要求的,他可以要求法庭颁一个强制履行令,强制违约一方要根据合约的条款进行。


    Tomlin order——汤林命令

    A Tomlin order is a court order in the English civil justice system under which a court action is stayed, on terms which have been agreed in advance between the parties and which are included in a schedule to the order. As such, it is a form of consent order. The order permits either party to apply to court to enforce the terms of the order, avoiding the need to start fresh proceedings. The terms of the schedule do not form part of the court order, so may remain confidential, and can include matters outside the jurisdiction of the court or the scope of the case in hand.

    【注】  Tomlin order(汤林命令),是和解令的一种。主要在民事诉讼中,双方达至一和解协议,并将双方要履行的职责,附于附表中。但这个命令只是暂停诉讼的执行,若有一方不依据命令的行为而执行,另一方可向法庭申请恢复先前的诉讼。



    The formal decision or finding made by a jury concerning the questions submitted to it during a trial. The jury reports the verdict to the court, which generally accepts it.

    【注】   Verdict(裁决、判决),指法官就案件所作出的最后决定。若果有陪审团的话,裁决将会由陪审团作出。


     Voir dire——预备讯问、预先审查、一切照实陈述、对见证人和陪审员的审核

    1Voir dire is a phrase in law which derives from Middle French. In origin it refers to an oath to speak the truth (Latin verum dicere) with "voir" meaning "truth" whereas the modern french word "voir" derives from Latin videre ("to see"). This is why the expression is often interpreted by false etymology to mean "to see [them] say". It now generally refers to the process by which prospective jurors are questioned about their backgrounds and potential biases before being invited to sit on a jury.

    2[Old French, To speak the truth.] The preliminary examination of prospective jurors to determine their qualifications and suitability to serve on a jury, in order to ensure the selection of fair and impartial jury.

    【注】  Voir dire源于中世纪的法语。它有两个含义,一是主要用于刑事案件人,聆讯被告人向执法人员所作的口供是否可信,并出于自愿的。二是审查陪审团成员的资格。


     Wager of law——赌法律、誓证裁决、宣誓断讼

    A procedure for defending oneself that could be used in a trial before one of the ancient courts of England.

    A defendant who elected to "make his law" was permitted to make a statement before the tribunal, swear an oath that it was true, and present one or more individuals who swore that they believed he had told the truth under oath. This was the predominant form of defense in the feudal courts, and it persisted for a time in the common-law courts.

    【注】  Wager of law(誓证裁决、宣誓断讼),是一种中纪的裁判方式。根据这种裁判方式,被告用誓言駁斥原告的指控,並且找來11個人宣誓證明其无辜。这种裁判方式在英格兰得到发展,並在教会法院中被长期沿用,1617世纪時趋于衰落,於1833年被废止。比如在债务纠纷案中,被告可找来十几个局外人为自己作证。这些证人手持《圣经》,宣誓说被告不欠原告债务,则被告可胜诉。


    Ward of court——受法庭保护、受法院监护的

    In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. A court may take responsibility for the legal protection of an individual, usually either a child or incapacitated person, in which case the ward is known as a ward of the court or a ward of the state.

    【注】  若法庭发觉未成年人或因其身体的缺陷而需要法庭保护,法庭会颁令照顾这些人或会安排社会福利处或其它监护人代为照顾。



    An order issued by a court requiring that something be done or giving authority to do a specified act.

    【注】  Writ一词,可以用来指任何书面的东西,甚至是一本书,比如Holy Writ(《圣经》)。更专门一些,它指一种命令、禁令或说明某种情况的简短的官方文件(拉丁形式为breve)。它区别于特许状(charter)或特许证(diploma),因为它不如后者正规、庄严和详细。


       writ of prohibition——禁止令、责停令状

    An order issued by a higher court commanding a lower court to cease from proceeding in some matter not within its jurisdiction.

    【注】  writ of prohibition(禁止令、责停令状),即高级法院要求其下级法院停止某项其无司法管辖权的司法进程的命令。


        writ of mandamus——责成令状、训令状

    Along with the writs of prohibition and certiorari, the writ of mandamus was a prerogative writ in English common law. A writ of mandamus issued from the court of King's Bench, directed to some officer, corporation, or inferior court and required that a duty prescribed by law, and not subject to discretion, be performed. Because of the extraordinary nature of mandamus, it was awarded only when other remedies had been exhausted.

    【注】  writ of mandamus(责成令状、训令状),即在英美普通法中指有管辖权的法官对下级法院、政府官员、机构、法人或个人下达的要求其履行法定职责行为的命令。


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