注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

福爱迪,北京丰台房山良乡正规认证翻译公司

01083682380,世界500强翻译提供商,www.forideal.com

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

百年福爱迪(北京)翻译有限公司 翻译,世界500强公司翻译服务商。由多年翻译经验的高级翻译创办,翻译领域包括政治、财经、合同、报告、机械、电气等以及国标、标书等大型文件。移民、出国材料,提供译员资质,加盖中英文翻译专用章。提供留学文书创作!希望各界同仁共同切磋,合作。承接各种翻译业务,满意后付款.并提供完善的译后服务。 欢迎来电来函。 地址:北京市房山区良乡绿地启航国际6号楼1506室 website:www.forideal.com 电话:010-83682380 13164266641

网易考拉推荐

常见常用法律英语词汇笺注 > 民商法篇(转)  

2008-06-11 15:34:25|  分类: 知识共享 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Alimony——离婚赡养费、生活费

 Money a court requires one spouse to pay the other spouse for support before and/or after the divorce is granted. If you do not ask for alimony at the final hearing, you can never get it in the future.

【注】  法院要求配偶的一方在离婚前或离婚后支付给另一方以维持生活的费用。

 

Annulment——无效婚姻判决书、撤消婚姻

A court order declaring that a marriage is invalid.

Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. Annulment differs from divorce where the court ends an otherwise legal marriage on a specific date.

In strict legal terminology, annulment refers only to making a voidable marriage null; if the marriage is void ab initio, then it is automatically null, although a legal declaration of nullity is required to establish this. The process of obtaining such a declaration is similar to the annulment process.

【注】  一份法院宣告其婚姻无效的判决书。撤消婚姻是宣布婚姻无效的一道法律程序。撤消婚姻不同于离婚。严格说来,无效婚姻指的是可推翻的婚姻。

『笺』  annulmentannul的名词形式,意思是“废除、取消(法律等)”,尤其指取消法院对不合法婚姻所作的不生效的宣告。

 

Arrearages——拖欠的赡养费/抚养费

Money for alimony and/or child support, which is overdue and unpaid.

【注】  拖欠的离婚赡养费和(或)子女抚养费。

 

As is——现状

As is (or as-is) is a legal term and concept used to disclaim liability for an item being sold. "As-is" denotes that the seller is selling, and the buyer is buying an item in whatever condition it presently exists, and that the seller is accepting the item with all faults”(不保证商品没有瑕疵).

A seller of a used automobile, for example, sells his car to a buyer, and puts into the contract of sale, the statement: "The buyer accepts the automobile AS-IS, WITH ALL FAULTS". Two minutes after the buyer drives off with his shiny '87 Honda Accord, the engine seizes, and the car stalls. Unless the buyer can show that there was some fraud involved in the sale, he is stuck with the car without any recourse to return the car (now presumably being hooked up to a tow truck) to the seller, and gets his money back.

【注】  As is”常用于物业买卖的合约中,指物业的现状。“The property is and will be sold on an ”as is“ basis …”即物业将会以其现状出售。

 

Binding——有约束力的

Imposing or commanding adherence to a commitment, an obligation, or a duty: binding arbitration; a binding agreement.

【注】  binding”通常的解释是连结一起,但法律上则多用作有约束力的,例如:This provisional agreement is a binding contract。这份临时协议是有法律约束力的。

 

Body Corporate——法人实体、法人

A body corporate is the English legal term for a corporation. It is distinct from a natural person(自然人), although it has many of the same legal rights.

A body corporate can be either a corporation sole (consisting of a single person) or a corporation aggregate (consisting of two or more persons). The UK Crown is an example of a corporation sole, whereas J Sainsbury plc is an example of a corporation aggregate.

【注】  经法律程序而产生具有与自然人相同法律地位的组织,例如:根据公司条例注册成立的有限公司Limited Company,可以拥有资产,可以向外借贷,可以提出控诉,也可以被申索。法人团体没有自然的死亡因素,所以必须经法律程序才可以将它消除。

法人既可以是由一个人组织的机构,也可以是两个人以上成立的组织机构。

『笺』  legal personmoral personjuristic personartificial personjuridical person都译为“法人”,与“自然人”相对。

 

Broken Down Irretrievably——感情破裂并无法挽回、夫妻感情确已破裂

The most common reason for granting a divorce. It means there is no hope of the husband and wife getting back together again. Also known as "no-fault" divorce.

【注】  “感情破裂并已无法挽回”是准予离婚的最常见理由。它意味着配偶双方已无法继续共同生活。因此而离婚被称为“无过错”离婚。

 

Chattels——动产

All property except real property; personal property. For example: jewelry, clothing, furniture, and appliances.

A chattel is treated as personal property rather than real property regardless of whether it is movable or immovable.

    【注】  动产,指的是除了不动产以外的财产。它是“不动产”相对应的一个概念。

 

Claim——申索、主张权利

To demand or assert as a right. Facts that combine to give rise to a legally enforceable right or judicial action.

【注】  Claim,即要求、主张某一项权利。

民事诉讼的传票中,原告须要将其向被告申索的事由详细列明,称为Statement of Claim Particulars of Claim

 

Consideration——对价,约因

Something of value given by both parties to a contract that induces them to enter into theagreement to exchange mutual performances.

Consideration is an essential element for the formation of a contract. It may consist of a promise to perform a desired act or a promise to refrain from doing an act that one is legally entitled to do. In a bilateral contract(双务合同)—an agreement by which both parties exchange mutual promises—each promise is regarded as sufficient consideration for the other. In a unilateral contract(单务合同), an agreement by which one party makes a promise in exchange for the other's performance, the performance is consideration for the promise, while the promise is consideration for the performance.

Consideration must have a value that can be objectively determined. A promise, for example, to make a gift, or a promise of love or affection, is not enforceable because of the subjective nature of the promise.

【注】  合约是订约方自愿建立的法律关系,是一方以有价值的代价或者承诺以换取对方的承诺或代价,这些合约中的承诺或代价称为对价或约因,缺乏有效的对价或约因,合约便不能成立。

『笺』  英美各国法律认为,没有对价的许诺只是一件礼物;而为对价所做出的许诺则已构成一项合同。 所谓对价,是指根据协议已经履行或将要履行义务的当事人由此得到某种利益,或者接受义务履行的当事人为此而遭受某种损失的事实要素;它是对履行义务当事人一方的某种回报。1875年的“居里诉米沙案”判例将其定义为:“一方得到权利、利益、利润或好处,或者另一方抑制一定行为,承受损害,损失或责任。”

对价,又称约因(consideration)其内涵是一方为换取另一方做某事的承诺而向另一方支付的金钱代价或得到该种承诺的承诺。对价从法律上看是一种等价有偿的允诺关系,而从经济学的角度说,对价就是利益冲突的双方处于各自利益最优状况的要约而又互不被对方接受时,通过两个或两个以上平等主体之间的妥协关系来解决这一冲突。换句话说,在两个以上平等主体之间由于经济利益调整导致法律关系冲突时,矛盾各方所作出的让步。这种让步也可以理解为是由于双方从强调自身利益出发而给对方造成的损失的一种补偿。

 

Contributory Negligence——分担责任、过失责任

Contributory negligence is a common law defence to a claim or action in tort. It applies to a situation where a plaintiff or claimant has, through their own negligence, caused or contributed to the injury they suffered from a tort. For example where a pedestrian crosses a road carelessly and is hit by a driver who is also driving carelessly.

【注】  意外中的伤者对意外的造成及他自己的受伤程度,需要分担部份疏忽的责任,他所获得的赔偿额也会相对地减少。

其适用范围是,当事人双方在该民事侵权行为中因其自己的疏忽而引发的意外伤害,其必须承担一定的责任。

『笺』  关于受害人过错的性质,学说上也有不同的观点,主要有“不忠实态度说”、“违反社会义务说”、“未采取合理注意说”和“未预见说”四种。“不忠实态度说”认为,受害人的过错是指受害人违背诚实信用原则,对其自身采取了不忠实的态度;“违反社会义务说”则认为,人人均对其人身和财产负有一种合理的注意义务,违反此义务实际上构成对社会义务的违反;“未采取合理注意说”认为,受害人负有一种使自己处于安全状态、并不使加害人处于一种负责任的危险状态的义务。若受害人未尽合理注意而违反该义务,则不仅使自己处于不安全状态中,而且使他人处于负责任的不安全状态中,于此场合,受害人便有过错;“未预见说”认为,受害人应当预见并且能够预见到自己可能遭受损害。

 

Custody——保管,监护,拘留

A court order deciding where a child will live and how decisions about the child will be made. Parents may ask for any custody arrangement that they believe is in the best interest of their child.

【注】  一般而言,Custody这个名词是指对象的保管或拥有,而在刑事案件中,则指对被告的拘留。Custody of Children 是指对未成年子女的监护权。

 

Damages——损害赔偿金

Money a party receives as compensation for a legal wrong.

【注】  所谓损害赔偿金,指的是一方当事人因受到侵害而收到的一笔钱。例如:The court awarded the victim of the industrial accident one hundred thousand dollars in damages. (法庭判给劳动事故中受害者100,000美元的赔偿金。)

『笺』  惩罚性赔偿(punitive damages),一般是指由法庭作出的赔偿数额超出了实际损害的赔偿,因此也被称为惩戒性赔偿(exemplary damages)或报复性赔偿(vindictive damages)。在《牛津法律大词典》中,punitive damagesexemplary damagesvindictive damages,是同义词,系一个术语,有时用来指判定的损害赔偿金,它不仅是对原告的补偿,而且也是对故意加害人的惩罚。

另外还有附带性赔偿(incidental damages) 、专门损害赔偿(special damages)等词。

 

Debtor——债务人

One who owes a debt or the performance of an obligation to another, who is called the creditor(债权人); one who may be compelled to pay a claim or demand; anyone liable on a claim, whether due or to become due.

【注】 debtor(债务人),债的关系中有义务按约定的条件向另一方(债权人)承担为或不为一定行为的当事人。在债的关系中,债务人是特定的,只有该义务主体才必须向债权人承担交付财产、提供劳务和为或不为一定行为的义务。债务人可以是公民,可以是法人,国家作为民事主体出现时也可以具备债务人的资格。

 

Deed——契约

A written instrument, which has been signed and delivered, by which one individual, the grantor, conveys title to real property to another individual, the grantee; a conveyance of land, tenements, or hereditaments, from one individual to another.

At common law, a deed was an instrument under seal that contained a covenant or contract delivered by the individual who was to be bound by it to the party to whom it was granted. It is no longer required that such an instrument be sealed.

【注】  契约,是一种特别的合约,须要经过当事人签署、盖章并送交对方才算有效,契约上的盖章在法律上被视为一种有效的约因。它一般指土地、房屋、可继承财产的转让。

 

Default——不履行责任/义务、失责行为、违约、缺席

The failure to fulfill a legal obligation, such as neglecting to pay back a loan on schedule.

Failure to make a required court appearance.

【注】  Default(不履行义务)即不履行法律义务。

另外,此词还审判时的缺庭。如default judgment(缺席审判)。

 

Dependant / dependent——受养人、被抚养人

A person whose support and maintenance is contingent upon the aid of another.

A dependent is someone who is sustained by another person, such as a child supported by his or her parents.

【注】  是指某人的某些家庭成员,需要依靠这个人提供的经济来支持生活,如果这个人因意外死亡,他的受养人因而遭受损失,是有权追究责任,要求赔偿有关损失。

 

Defective title——有瑕疵的所有权、不完全的所有权

an apparent title to real property which fails because a claimed prior holder of the title did not have title, or there is a faulty description of the property or some other "cloud" over it, which may or may not be apparent from reading the deed.

【注】  Defective title(有瑕疵的所有权),指原占有人并不真正享有合法的所有权。

 

Disclaimer——弃权、否认、不承诺

1) denial or renunciation by someone of his/her title to property.

2) denial of responsibility for another's claim, such as an insurance company's refusal to admit coverage under an insurance policy.

3) statement of non-responsibility, as is made when dissolving a partnership or business.

【注】  Disclaimer,是指某人愿意放弃法律上的某项权益,如果这项权益是以书面确认,则这份文件称为Disclaimer。此外,也可以是指对某个声称或指控作出否认的行为。

 

Fee simple——永久地产、永久产权、完全地产权

absolute title to land, free of any other claims against the title, which one can sell or pass to another by will or inheritance. This is a redundant form of "fee," but is used to show the fee (absolute title) is not a "conditional fee," or "determinable fee," or "fee tail." Like "fee" it is often used in deeds transferring title, as in "Harry Hadit grants to Robert Gotit title in fee simple? or similar words.

【注】  Fee simple(永久地产),以往称Freehold,即所属土地是永久性的、各自独立的。即其由业主独立拥有,不涉及他人物业,除了可能涉及到的公用车道或者排水管道等而涉及到“通行权”。

『笺』  英美法的地产权制度直接产生于解决土地归国王所有和土地又必须将土地分散到不同主体利用这一矛盾。在英国特殊历史时期,除国王以外的人,拥有土地被认为是持有或占有(hold)土地,而不是所有(own)土地;土地享有者,均称为持有者(tenant),而不是所有者(owner)。由于这样一种特殊历史背景,英美法创造了一个抽象的地产概念,即EstateEstate表示对土地的某种权利。由此Estate取代了实物(土地)成为人们财产权的客体。于是,在同一块土地上便耸立着多个平行的权利主体,每一个土地权利人均有相对应的客体。

英美法的地产权是一个复杂的体系,其最基本框架奠定于1925年英国的《财产法》。据此,地产权分两类:一类是Fee simple absolute in possession,通称freehold(可译为自主持有) ;另一种是Term of years absolute,通称leasehold(即租赁持有)。与之相对应则称为自主持有地产权(freehold estate)和租赁持有地产权(leasehold estate)。除了地产权外,英美法也存在地役权(easements)、许可(licences)、获益权(profits a prendre)和限制性契约(restrictive covenants)等非地产权利益。

 

Fee tail——限嗣继承不动产、指定继承人的不动产

an old feudal expression for a title to real property which can only be passed to one's heirs "of his body" or certain heirs who are blood relatives. If the blood line ran out (no children) then the title would revert to the descendants of the lord who originally gave the land to the title-holding family. Thus, it could not be transferred to anyone outside the family. The intention was to keep lands within a family line and not subdivided. In 16th century England, trusts were established to get around this "restraint on alienation" so the land could be held in trust for another person to use. Fee tail is of historic and academic interest only.

【注】  美国的财产法认为,不动产权所有人所拥有的并不是土地本身,而是对于土地的产权(estate)。这些土地产权主要包括非限定继承不动产(fee simple)、限嗣继承不动产(fee tail)、终身产权(life estate)、未来权益(future interests)、定期租赁(tenancy for years)、定期续租(periodic tenancy)、不定期租赁(tenancy at will)等等;还包括不动产的几种共同所有形式以及地役权(easements)、随土地转移的约定(covenants running with land)和基于衡平法的地役权(equitable servitudes)。

 

For value received——如数收讫

a phrase used in a promissory note, a bill of exchange or a deed to show that some consideration (value) has been given without stating what that payment was.

【注】  英文汇票上,在金额后面常用“value received”表示价款已收受,汇票一经兑付,便由付款人留存,因此value received有表示具 有发票人已向付款人收取货款的含义。

 

Frustration of purpose——目的落空

sometimes called commercial frustration, when unexpected events arise which make a contract impossible to be performed, entitling the frustrated party to rescind the contract without paying damages.

【注】  frustration of purpose (合同目的落空),是指合同当事人订立合同的目的在履行过程中消灭了,履行合同成了多余的事。英国法院在1903年的“克雷尔诉亨利案”(krell v. henry),最早确立了目的落空导致合同受挫理论。合同目的落空理论的核心是订立合同的主要目的(principal purpose)实质性地落空了(substantially frustrated),目的落空是合同挫折的情形之一,除了目的落空之外,合同挫折还包括履行不能与履行不实际。根据英美法,履行不能包括法律上的不可能(legal impossibility)和物质上的不可能(physical impossibility),前者主要指合同订立时合法,但在履行过程中由于法律修改或政府干预而使合同的履行成为非法;后者主要指合同标的物灭失,或当事人死亡或丧失能力,而无法履行合同。

『笺』  在大陆法系中,与英美法系合同挫折主义相对应的概念是情事变更制度。情事变更在英语中为“changed circumstances”,但解决此类问题的法律制度为“合同挫折主义”(the doctrine of frustration of contract)。英国法学家的解释是:“所谓契约受挫失效,是指双方当事人订立契约的实质性目的、共同的期望不能实现。”施米托夫对其所下的定义是:“合同落空是一种现象,指由于某一事件的发生,法律规定免除当事人履行合同义务的责任,该事件:(1)是合同缔结后发生的;(2)任何一方当事人都不承担对该事件的责任;(3)法律认为该事件是免于合同履行的正当理由。”《布莱克法律大辞典》(black's law dictionary):“以特定人或事物之存在为要件之契约,订约后,此特定人或事物,发生死亡或灭失之情形,或者因天灾、法律规定、第三人之行为,致契约履行不能时,免除当事人履行义务之法则。”美国法院的解释是:“在合同成立后,如在履行中遇到了不可预料的障碍或情况,导致合同不能履行或履行艰难时,法院或当事人采取的一种衡平措施。”

大陆法系的情事变更制度与英美法系的合同挫折主义是两大法系中相对应的一对概念,二者关系非常密切,既有相同之处又有所区别。就二者的区别来说,主要表现在:①适用范围不完全一致。情事变更制度适用于履约艰难情形;合同挫折主义适用于履约不能和目的落空情形。②法律后果不一样。在情事变更制度下,情事变更的后果是导致合同的变更或解除,而且以变更为第一效力,解除为第二效力。在合同挫折主义下,合同受挫的后果是合同关系的自动解除,完全免除当事人的履约义务,一般不允许法院依职权对合同内容进行变更。③对事变的要求不一样。情事变更制度要求事变必须是在合同订立之后发生,若在合同订立之前发生,可导致重大误解(错误)或推定当事人自愿承担风险,而不适用情事变更制度。合同挫折主义所要求的事变可以发生在缔约之后,也可以发生在缔约之前,只要当事人知道事变的发生是在合同成立之后就可能导致合同挫折主义的适用。

 

General partnerGP)——普通合伙人、一般合伙人

usually one of the owners and operators of a partnership, which is a joint business entered into for profit, in which responsibility for management, profits and, most importantly, the liability for debts is shared by the general partners. Anyone entering into a general partnership (the most common business organization involving more than one owner) must remember that each general partner is liable for all the debts of the partnership. Furthermore, any partner alone can bind the partnership on contracts.

【注】  General partnerGP,普通合伙人),即传统合伙人制组织形式下的合伙人,享受权利,同时承担义务,包括相互代理和个人无限责任。而limited partnerLP,有限合伙人),即有限合伙人制下,合伙人无权参与管理,仅有权参与利润分配。对企业亏损的责任以其出资额为限, 受限合伙人的地位与传统意义上的合伙人不同,而与投资者相似。

『笺』  西方发达国家的风险投资实践经验表明,有限合伙人公司(Venture Capital limited Partnership)是最有效率的风险投资公司的组织形式。美国风险投资产业组织形式中,有限合伙人公司占80%以上。在这个制度下设立风险投资基金(风险资本),投资者是有限合伙人(Limited Partner),风险资本家是一般合伙人(General Partner),双方通过签订契约来组建风险投资公司。

 

Grantee——受让人、受赠者

the party who receives title to real property (buyer, recipient, donee) from the seller (grantor) by a document called a grant deed or quitclaim deed.

【注】  受让人是指通过合同或继承等而依法取得某不动产的单位或个人。

 

Guarantee——保证

One to whom a guaranty is made. This word is also used, as a noun, to denote the contract of guaranty or the obligation of a guarantor, and, as a verb, to denote the action of assuming the responsibilities of a guarantor.

【注】  保证人(Guarantor)承诺不作出某指定的行为。保证一般都会以书面并以契约形式订立,称为Deed of GuaranteeGuarantee,作为名词用,指“保证书、抵押品”;作为动词用,指“保证”这一行为。

 

Implied contract——暗示合同、默认合同

an agreement which is found to exist based on the circumstances when to deny a contract would be unfair and/or result in unjust enrichment to one of the parties. An implied contract is distinguished from an "express contract."

【注】  根据订立合同的方式不同,合同可以分为明示合同(Express contract)和默示合同(Implied contract)。一项合同,如果当事人采用书面或是口头的形式来订立,就是明示合同;如果订立合同的意图不是通过语言而是通过行为表示出来的,那么该合同就是默示合同。明示合同的条件取决于当事人的语言,默示合同取决于当事人的行为及具体情形。例如,病人到医院看病,顾客到饭店吃饭,虽然在看病和吃饭前未明确表示要付钱,但是也可以推断出其在接受服务后有付款的意思。

 

Implied term——默示条款

A contract may contain terms which are not expressly stated, but which are implied because the parties so intend or by operation of law.

These terms that have not been orally mentioned or written down but are incorporated in the agreement/contract according to the law or the previous dealings between the parties.

【注】  在英美法中,作为合同内容的合同条款从形式上可以分为两类,即明示条款(express terms)和默示条款(implied terms)。合同中的明示条款是合同的当事人合意的明确表现和权利义务的基础,当事人缔结合同之后,其权利义务的内容、范围一般通过对该合同的明示条款审查即可知悉。

Implied terms(默示条款,也译为隐含条款),是指英美法中在形式上与明示条款相对的一种合同条款。根据《布莱克法律词典》的解释,所谓默示条款是指:“合同双方没有在合同中明确约定,但是由法院推断当事人默示的意图添加进合同的条款。”(A provision not expressly agreed to by the parties but instead read into the contract by a court as being implicit.)。《元照英美法词典》对此的解释是:“虽未在合同中明示,但为使当事人的缔约意图免于落空,而必须得以适用,从而可以推定的合同条款。” 例如在雇佣合约中,虽然没有订明雇员必须尽忠职守,勤力工作,但其实这些条件,经已默示在合约当中,被视为有效的条款。

 

Infringement——侵犯、侵害、侵权、侵犯权利

1) a trespassing or illegal entering.

         2) in the law of patents (protected inventions) and copyrights (protected writings or graphics), the improper use of a patent, writing, graphic or trademark without permission, without notice, and especially without contracting for payment of a royalty.

【注】  一般指侵犯了他人的民事权利,多用于专利权、版权等知识产权的侵占行为。

 

Intestacy——无遗嘱

        the condition of having died without a valid will. In such a case if the dead party has property it will be distributed according to statutes, primarily by the law of descent and distribution and others dealing with marital property and community property. In probate the administration of the estate of a person without a will is handled by an administrator (usually a close relative, the spouse, a close associate) or a public administrator if there is no one willing to act, since there is no executor named in a will. In most states an administrator must petition the court to be appointed and must post a bond from an insurance company guaranteeing that it will pay the value of the assets he/she/it may steal or misuse.

【注】  逝世后没有留下遗嘱,死者的遗产便须要按照《无遗嘱者遗产条例》分配,但在进行遗产分配之前,在该条例中指明合资格的人,应先向高等法院的遗产承办处申请成为死者的遗产承办人(Administrator),然后负责分配死者的遗产。

所谓无遗嘱(不留遗嘱),是指当事人根本未订立任何遗嘱,或订立了不发生法律效力的遗嘱,或所立的遗嘱被撤销或成为无效,或没有任何人根据遗嘱成为继承人。

 

Intestate succession——无遗嘱继承

        the distribution when a person dies without leaving a valid will and the spouse and heirs will take (receive the possessions) by the laws of descent and distribution and marital rights in the estate which may apply to a surviving spouse. Collectively these are called the laws of intestate succession.

【注】  Intestate succession(无遗嘱继承),即指由于被继承人没有留下合法的遗嘱,继承人的范围、继承顺序、代位继承以及遗产分配的原则等均由法律直接规定的继承。与之相关的概念有:法定继承(legal seccessio)、遗嘱继承(testate succession)、遗赠继承(succession by devise)、自然继承(natural succession)、代位继承(representation; succession by subrogation)。

 

Joint tenancy——联权共有、共同租赁

       a crucial relationship in the ownership of real property, which provides that each party owns an undivided interest in the entire parcel, with both having the right to use all of it and the right of survivorship, which means that upon the death of one joint tenant, the other has title to it all.

【注】  两人共同拥有一项不动产,可以以联权共有的形式拥有,亦可以以分权的形式(Tenancy in Common) 拥有。联权共有拥有不动产,一般人称为"长命契",联权共有形式是双方共同拥有不动产的全部,当其中一方逝世后,剩余的一方便独自拥有该不动产。

Joint tenancy,联合共有(含生存者对共有财产中死者权利部分的享有权),亦即survivorshiptenancy in common,共同共有(不含生存者对共有财产中死者权利部分的享有权)。

『笺』  在“Joint tenancy " 和“tenancy in common”两者之间,夫妻之间通常选择 Joint tenancy ”来确认其所有权法律关系。在这种法律关系下,夫妻双方共同拥有整个房产,双方具有相同的权利。构成Joint tenancy,必须同时具备以下四个条件:①夫妻双方对房产的所有权必须来自同一法律文件。比如:同一购房合同,同一遗嘱;②夫妻双方必须同时获得房产所有权;③夫妻双方必须完整地占有整个房产,不是分别地把持部分房产;④夫妻双方对房产的权益必须是平等的、持续的。

Joint tenancy(联权共有)的最大特点是当夫妻一方去世时,其房产权益自动完全转归另一方,去世者的继承人不继承任何房产权益,去世者也不能将房产遗赠给他人。长辈与晚辈之间,兄弟姐妹之间,也可以对房产拥有这种法律关系,只要同时具备以上四个条件。

 

Lapse——失去时效

1) to fail to occur, particularly a gift made in a will.

2) to become non-operative.

【注】  在商议的过程中,所给予考虑的时限过后,有关的提议也失去了效力。例:This offer will be lapsed automatically after the time limit. (这项要约在期限过后,便会自动失效。)

 

letters of administration——遗产管理证书

         a document issued by the court clerk which states the authority of the administrator of an estate of a person who has died, when there is no will or no available executor named by a will and an administrator has been appointed by the court. It is issued during probate of the estate as soon as the court approves the appointment of the administrator, who files a security bond if one is required. Certified copies of the letters are often required by banks and other financial institutions, the federal government, stock transfer agents or other courts before transfer of money or assets to the administrator of the estate.

【注】  Letters of Administration(遗产管理证书)是一份由法庭颁发的正式文件,该文件授权一个人来管理未留下遗嘱的死者之遗产。

与之相关联的Distribution Order(遗产分配法令)则是这样一项法庭指令,该法令分配未立遗嘱死者之遗产。

 

letters testamentary——遗嘱执行人授权书

         a document issued by the court clerk which states the authority of the executor of an estate of a person who has died. It is issued during probate of the estate as soon as the court approves the appointment of the executor named in the will and the executor files a security bond if one is necessary (most well-drafted wills waive the need for a bond). Certified copies of the letters are often required by banks and other financial institutions, the federal government, stock transfer agents or other courts before transfer of money or assets to the executor of the estate.

【注】  letters testamentary(遗嘱执行人授权书)是由法庭签发的一份正式文件,该文件授权某人负责处理死者的遗嘱及有关事务。

立遗嘱者在遗嘱中可以指定遗嘱执行人(executor),但实际上是由法院最终任命的。如果法院对死者选择的遗嘱执行人不满,可以任命另外一个人。法院会发给他遗嘱执行人授权书(letters testamentary),这个人就有权实施一系列的行为了。

 

Liquidated damages——定额赔偿、违约赔偿金

         an amount of money agreed upon by both parties to a contract which one will pay to the other upon breaching (breaking or backing out of) the agreement or if a lawsuit arises due to the breach.

【注】  民事诉讼中原告所申索的赔偿是一个指定的数额,当被告收到了传票后,如果他照该指定赔偿额付款给原告,原告便再没有申索的理据,案件也就因此而完结。

 

Maintenance——供养/赡养费、生活费

 In a divorce or separation, the money paid by one spouse to the other in order to fulfill the financial obligation that comes with marriage. The support which one person, who is bound by law to do so, gives to another for his living; for example, a father is bound to find maintenance for his children; and a child is required by law to maintain his father or mother when they cannot support themselves, and he has ability to maintain them.

【注】  一个人向另一个人提供经济给予的行为,称为供养。而在家事法上,对子女配偶提供的生活费用,称为赡养费。

 

Mail box rule——邮件投递生效原则

in contract law, making a written offer or acceptance of offer valid if sent in the mail, with postage, within the time in which the offer must be accepted, unless the offer requires acceptance by personal delivery on or before the specified date.

【注】  在函电成交情况下,承诺何时生效,各国争议很大。大陆法国家实行邮件到达生效原则(Received the Letter of Acceptance),而英美法则实行邮件投递生效原则(Mail-Box Rule)。

邮件到达生效(Received the Letter of Acceptance)是指承诺的信函送达要约人时生效。采用这一原则的理论依据是承诺如同要约一样也是一种意思表示,当要约人知晓这种意思表示时,受约人才能达到目的,因此,只有当要约人收到承诺的信函时,才能知悉受约人的意思表示。实际上,大陆法的这一理论只是它实行到达生效原则的表面原因,真正原因是通过约束受约人来平衡要约人与承诺人在承担责任上的公平性。实际上,大陆法的这一理论只是它实行到达生效原则的表面原因,真正原因是通过约束受约人来平衡要约人与承诺人在承担责任上的公平性。因为大陆法发盘的前提是实盘,实盘一旦发出并送达,发盘人就不得撤销。

邮件投递生效(Mail-Box Rule)是指承诺的信函一经投邮,便视为到达,承诺就立即生效,即使承诺的信函在邮递途中遗失,也不影响合同的成立。采用这一原则的理论根据是民法学上的委托代理理论,即要约人通过邮局将要约的信函送给承诺人,在这里,要约人以默示的方式指定邮局充当他的代理人,承诺人收到要约信函后,将承诺交给要约人的代理人就等于交给了要约人本人。因此,承诺的信函送到代理人手中,就应视为送到要约人手中,即为送达。其实,英美法系的这一理论只是它实行发信主义原则的托词,并非真正原因,真正原因是通过缩短发盘人撤销发盘的时间来调和发盘人与受盘人之间的利益冲突。

 

Mutual wills——共同遗嘱、联合遗嘱

         wills made by two people (usually spouses, but could be "partners") in which each gives his/her estate to the other, or with dispositions they both agree upon. A later change by either is not invalid unless it can be proved that there was a contract in which each makes the will in the consideration for the other person making the will.

【注】  共同遗嘱,又称联合遗嘱,或合立遗嘱、共立遗嘱,是指两个或两个以上的遗嘱人共同订立同一份遗嘱,对其死亡后各自或共同遗留的财产指定继承人继承的一种遗产继承方式。这是一种特殊的遗嘱方式,多数情况下发生在夫妻之间。

     共同遗嘱从遗嘱内容上可分为相关的共同遗嘱和单纯的共同遗嘱两种,同一份共同遗嘱也有单纯和相关之分。相关的共同遗嘱是相互依存的,即当一方的遗嘱内容发生变更或撤回时,对方的遗嘱内容也因而随之发生变化;在遗嘱生效前,即使有遗嘱人先死亡,其遗产也不得被擅自分割。而单纯的共同遗嘱人之间的关系,则是相互独立的,遗嘱人各自可自由变更、撤销其遗嘱而互不相干。可见,单纯的共同遗嘱实为数份独立遗嘱,只不过在形式上合而为一而已,而内容相关的共同遗嘱则要复杂得多,任何一位遗嘱人皆不得擅自变更或撤回遗嘱内容,通常要等到最后一位遗嘱人死亡后,继承才真正开始。

 

Natural children——非婚生子女、私生子

         In the phraseology of the English or American law, natural children are children born out of wedlock, or bastards, and are distinguished from legitimate children; but in the language of the civil law, natural are distinguished from adoptive children, that is, they are the children of the parents spoken of, by natural procreation.

【注】  natural children主要指非婚生子女,它不同与婚生子女,也不同于养子女。legitimate child才是婚生子女; adulterine child 则为奸生子女;adopted child foster child 养子()stepchild是前妻(或前夫)所生子女

 

Notice to quit——迁出通知书

         the notice given by a landlord (owner) to a tenant to leave the premises (quit) either by a certain date (usually 30 days) or to pay overdue rent or correct some other default (having pets, having caused damage, too many roommates, using the property for illegal purposes, etc.) within a short time (usually three days).

【注】  Notice to quit是指房东发给房客的关于要求其在一定期限内搬离、支付逾期的房租、纠正其违约行为的通知书。

 

Palimony——分居扶养费、同居分手生活费

A court-ordered allowance for support paid by one person to his or her former lover or live-in partner (living together out of wedlock) after they have separated.

【注】  palimony是一个新词,词的前一部分pal的意思是伙伴,后一部分alimony的意思是扶养费,放在一起就是伙伴扶养费。

夫妻按法庭判决离婚或合法分居后,原配偶中收入较多的一方应该付给另一方一定的供养费。英语中管这种赡养费叫alimony(生活费)。由于婚姻的自由化,不少人同居多年都不愿意结婚,但是一旦他们分手,法律却无法在经济上保护同居者的利益。直到上世纪70年代,“分居扶养费”(palimony)才首次登上美国法庭的“大雅之堂”,从此未婚同居者分居后也可以理直气壮地向对方索取生活费了。这笔生活费就是Palimony

Alimony一词的起源可以追溯到拉丁语alerenourish),其表示“滋养,喂养,使健壮,使生存”,传到英语中自然就表示“供养费”了。另外,除了alimonypalimony,还有flirt-imony(调情损失费),date-imony(约会补助费)等名目。

 

Partial intestacy——部份无遗嘱继承

         A situation where a will does not cover the whole estate of a deceased person.

【注】  Partial intestacy,是指死者在遗嘱中,并未完全处理其所有的遗产。例如,死者在遗嘱内只提及物业、现金(包括银行存款)的处理,实质死者还有股票及其它珠宝手饰等并未在遗嘱中提及,因此,这些未提及的遗产,便须根据无遗嘱继承来处理。

 

Personal effects——随身物品、私人物品

things which include clothes, cosmetics and items of adornment. This is not the same as "personalty" which means all tangible property which is not real property, money or investments. The expression is often found in wills ("I leave my personal effects to my niece, Susannah").

【注】  personal effects是指包括衣服、化妆品及其他装饰品等物品。它有别于财产。该词语常见于遗嘱中。如“我把我的私人物品留给我的侄女苏珊娜。”

 

POD(Pay-On-Death pay on delivery)——死后即付、货到付款

A way to avoid probate for bank accounts, government bonds, individual retirement accounts and, in many states, securities or a car. To create a Pay-On-Death designation, you simply name someone on the ownership document (such as the registration card for a bank account) to inherit the property at your death.

【注】  所谓PODPay-On-Death)是指不经遗嘱检验而处理其银行存款、政府债券、个人退休金、有价证券及其汽车等财产的一种方式。

PODpay on delivery)是货到付款。

 

Premarital Agreement——婚前协议、婚前财产协议

also called an antenuptial agreement, a written contract between two people who are about to marry, setting out the terms of possession of assets, treatment of future earnings, control of the property of each, and potential division if the marriage is later dissolved.

【注】  Premarital Agreementprenuptial agreement)系结婚双方就婚前财产、婚后所得以及各自财产的处理及婚后财产的分割等我恩体所作的书面协议。

 

professional negligence——专业过失

An act or continuing conduct of a professional which does not meet the standard of professional competence and results in provable damages to his/her client or patient.

【注】  professional negligence(专业过失)是指其行为没有达到专业才能标准,或者其行为的结果对其委托人造成了损害。

 

Reconciliation——和解

The restoration of peaceful or amicable relations between two individuals who were previously in conflict with one another.

Reconciliation ordinarily implies forgiveness for injuries on either or both sides. The term is often applied to the parties to a divorce who cease proceedings for the dissolution of their marriage upon a resolution of their differences. Reconciliation is used interchangeably with conciliation.

【注】  Reconciliation(和解),即当事人约定互相让步或者一方让步,以解决双方的争执的活动。Reconciliation(和解)通常出现于离婚案件中。

 

     Undue influence——不正当的施压、不当威逼、不正当影响

    Undue influence (as a term in jurisprudence) is an equitable doctrine that involves one person taking advantage of a position of power over another person. It is where free will to bargain is not possible.

    【注】  不正当影响(Undue influence),是英国衡平法本着公平正义的原则发展而来的一种确认合同效力的制度所谓不当影响(undue  influence),是指一方当事人利用其优越的地位、意志或思想在精神或其他方面向另一方当事人施加非正当的间接压力,从而迫使对方签订合同的一种非法行为。施加这种影响的人,往往滥用自己的被信任地位,或者利用对方薄弱的意志、懦弱的体质以及精神上的痛楚而影响对方当事人进行自主的抉择,以至迫使对方与自己签订在自由状态下决不会同意的合同。这种影响虽然没有完全摧毁对方的自由意志,但却压制了对方的自由意志,使之产生了一定程度的偏向。在此情形下,当事人所表达出来的意思就偏离了其内心的效果意思,形成了有瑕疵的意思表示。不正当影响(Undue influence)不同于胁迫。

    『笺』 在英国,通常将不正当影响分为下列两种。一是推定的不正当影响。即双方当事人间具有某种信任关系时,法律推定他们所订立的合同存在不正当影响。例如,当事人一般总是听从律师的建议,病人总是听从医生的劝告,信徒总是接受神父的指导年,迈的老人常把企业委托给别人管理。由于存在着这种信任关系,顾客、病人、信徒、老人等在缔结合同时,往往要受律师、医生、神父或受托人的影响。这种影响有时就属于不正当的影响。英国上议院把这种推定的不正当影响又分为两种:“第一种为法律上必然产生推定的不正当影响,即只要双方当事人存在下列关系之一的,法律便毫不犹豫地推定该合同有不正当影响,这些关系是:精神指导者与被指导者的关系、医生与病人的关系、侄儿与年迈的姑妈的关系、儿子与父母的关系、父母与未成年人或刚成年人的关系、受托人与信托受益人的关系、律师与客户的关系、老师与学生的关系等。存有上述关系的当事人之间所成立的合同,法律推定该合同是受不正当影响而成立的。这类合同只有在占优势的一方当事人提出反证,证明其对另一方并未施加不正当影响,另一方完全是依独立的意志订立的才有效成立。否则,将允许受不正当影响的一方取消合同。英国法院认为,最有效的反证证明是指出另一方在缔结合同前曾受到第三人的忠实劝告,这样就彻底扫除了一切嫌疑。第二种为半推定的不正当影响,即合同当事人之间虽然存在某种信任关系,如委托人与代理人的关系,但并不立即推定为有不正当的影响,只有在受影响的一方举证证明自己一贯信任,对方时法律才从中推定有不正当影响,当然对方也可提出反证推翻此项推定。这种不正当影响与第一种相比,其差异在于:后者当事人之间的关系较为紧密,受影响的一方只须指出存在该关系时即可推定;前者当事人之间的关系相对疏远,受影响的一方必须证明自己一贯信赖对方时才可推定。两者的共同点在于:对方(或被告)均可提出反证推翻该项推定。二是实际的不正当影响。即当事人之间虽不存在信任关系,但一方之所以与对方订立合同是基于依赖对方并受到其诱引和压力的实际影响。如英国法院在1866年威廉斯诉贝利一案的判例:A向B声称,除非将B所经营的煤矿抵押给A,否则A将揭发B之子在本票上伪造其父签名要求兑付的终身流放罪行,B迫于A之压力,与A签订了煤矿抵押合同。对此,法院认为A曾施加不正当影响,图谋攫取不义之财,因而取消了双方的合同。这种实际的不正当影响,并非由法院预先推定而确立,而是由自称因受不正当影响的一方向法院提供证据证明存在这种影响。由上可知,在英国,因不正当影响的种类不同,其认定或证明方法也不相同,即对特殊关系的案件采主观推定的方式,对无特殊关系的案件采客观证明的方式。

    美国没有直接划分不正当影响的种类,而是在司法实践中将不正当影响的案件分成两类。第一类是一方以不公平合理的方式利用自己在心理上占据的支配地位诱导占从属地位的另一方的同意而成立合同的案件,第二类是一方利用他的被信任者的地位而不是支配地位来说服另一方同意而成立合同的案件。这两类案件有时并不十分清楚,因为处于支配地位的人往往利用他所引起的被信任者的地位。但不管属于何种类型的案件,美国法院对不正当影响的认定并不象英国法院那样区别对待,而是一律采用客观证明的方式加以认定。该方式要求原告(即自称受影响的一方)提供相关证据,然后由法院综合考虑以下几方面的因素加以判断:①受影响者的精神、心理与身体状况是否易于受到他人的影响。如精神与体力的衰弱以及心理上的依赖性等,均属于易感性的因素。②是否存在着施加影响的机会。如支配地位或信任关系的存在等,便属于可能性的因素。③是否有事实表明曾施加不正当影响。如订立合同是实施不正当影响的一方所发动的或受影响的一方没有听从第三人忠告的合理条件等,这些属于事实性的因素。④合同的内容是否存在着不寻常的情况。如对价过于不相当或约因不足够以及存在不应有的疏忽等,这些属于不公正性的因素。

 

     Vicarious liability替代责任、转承责任

    The tort doctrine that imposes responsibility upon one person for the failure of another, with whom the person has a special relationship (such as parent and child, employer and employee, or owner of vehicle and driver), to exercise such care as a reasonably prudent person would use under similar circumstances.

    替代责任(Vicarious Liability) ,又称“代负责任”、“代理责任”。指一人依法对与其有特定联系的另一人之行为应无条件承担的间接责任。此类责任人不能以自己没有行为过错作为免责理由,而过错行为人则依法不再承担责任。替代责任原则产生于19世纪末,最初表现为普通法判例规则,其后为大陆法名国立法所确认。这一原则通常表现为以下格言和规则:代理人在代理权限内所为的行为与被代理人本人所为无异,其行为责任应由被代理人承担;雇员在受雇范围内所为侵权行为应视为其雇主之过错,该责任应由雇主负担;承保人对于投保人的事故赔偿责任负有合同义务,也应对保险事故承担无条件的替代责任。

 

    Will——遗嘱

    A document in which a person specifies the method to be applied in the management and distribution of his estate after his death.

    【注】  Will(遗嘱),即在世人士为自己死后的财务及各项安排预先签定的一份文件。

http://www.17xie.com/read-23904.html

 

  评论这张
 
阅读(1401)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017